• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain what is meant by the terms, 'Flashbulb memory', 'Repression' and 'Reconstructive Memory' (2+2+2).

Extracts from this document...


Psychology Exam Questions 1. Explain what is meant by the terms, 'Flashbulb memory', 'Repression' and 'Reconstructive Memory' (2+2+2) Flashbulb Memories are when people have a particularly strong and often-detailed memory of where they were and what they were doing when a particular event occurred. This event could be a well-known event in the newspaper such as when Princess Diana died or it could be more personal event, which is memorable to that particular individual such as their wedding day or the death of a relative. Repression is the concept, which was introduced by Freud who suggested that we forget, because there is great anxiety associated with certain memories, which is too great to cope with. When this is the case we may use the unconscious defense mechanism of Repression to push out memories into the unconscious. These memories continue to exist but out of the conscious memory. For example memories of been abused as a child may be to disturbing for a person to cope with and may be out of conscious recall. ...read more.


Research shows that more familiar and distinctive faces are remembered better after long delays. Davis and Jenkins found that t5he accuracy of face recognition id significantly reduced if subjects are shown composite photo-fit pictures of other faces beforehand. Gorenstein and Ellsworth (1980) found that witnesses are more likely to identify (correctly of otherwise) a person from a line up if they had appeared in mug shots the witness had searched beforehand. It can be concluded that the witness of an event would have to have a good look at the criminal to remember the distinctive features, because if there is any incorrect information then the wrong person may be falsely accused. 3. The Multi-Store model proposed by Atkinson and Shriffrin has been very influential, but it has also been criticised for its over simplicity and lack of flexibility. To what extent does psychological research support the Multi-Store model as an adequate explanation of human memory? ...read more.


or Clive Wearing provide strong evidence for the distinction between STM and LTM. Anterograde amnesia is often caused by brain damage to the hippocampus and those suffering from it are incapable of transferring new information between STM and LTM. They attract in a world of experience that only lasts as long as their STM does. They often retain a large amount of LTM for events up until the point of brain damage and maintain their procedural memories. Despite the fact that they are incapable of gaining new long-term declarative memory for semantic or episodic information, most are able to learn new procedural skills. Research by Baddely and Warrington (1970) shows that if these people are given free recall experiments they show good recency effects, but poor primacy effects. This research provides support for the Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory and proves that to a certain extent it is a reliable model. However there are many criticisms of this model, which cause it to become a less accurate in terms of explaining human memory and the way information passes through the stores. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Define short-term memory and describe the main factors that influence the number of items ...

    4 star(s)

    property such as 'activation' can be identical to remembering (Nairne 2002 [5]). More researchers are beginning to recognise the fact that the retention of information in short-term memory is cue driven, as is the retention of information in long-term memory.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate 2 Models Of Memory

    4 star(s)

    Chunking can increase the capacity of short-term memory. For example, the letters "b d e" constitute three units of information while the word "bed" represents one unit even though it is composed of the same number of letters. Chunking is a major technique for getting and keeping information in short-term memory; it is also a type of elaboration that will help get information into long-term memory.


    The music was played simultaneously after looking at and learning the words for a minute. This target population of 17 years old was seen as a suitable age for the investigation and generalisation can be made on this age set, from the set of data derived for this investigation.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    As mentioned above the following variables would be added to the investigation: the time of day in which the experiment was carried out, the age of the participants, criteria of distraction and what included doing and finally the duration of the distraction.

  1. Primacy and Recency effect

    have a higher bar chart than the middle ? of the words in the word list. In this experiment, the Primacy and Recency effect was investigated. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the Primacy and Recency effect basing on the Glanzer and Cunitz theory. The experimental hypothesis for this experiment which stated that: The first 10 words of a list of 30 (positioned from 1-10)

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    Identify any relevant ethical issues and identify the steps to be taken to deal with these. Confidentiality is a relevant ethical issue that may arise in this experiment. If the experimenter collected personal details of each participant, participants might behave in a reserved or in a positive light due to effects of evaluation apprehension.

  1. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    Loftus found that 75% of the participants who were given questions consistent with the slides they had seen in the initial presentation were able to correctly pick the slide that corresponded to their group. Of those who were given misleading questions, only 41% could accurately pick the slide that corresponded to their group.

  2. Describe two factors that can influence reconstructive memory

    There were several procedures of the study; firstly the participants were given different words some negative emotionally charged while others were positively emotionally charged and the rest were neutral.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work