• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain what is meant by the terms, 'Flashbulb memory', 'Repression' and 'Reconstructive Memory' (2+2+2).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Psychology Exam Questions 1. Explain what is meant by the terms, 'Flashbulb memory', 'Repression' and 'Reconstructive Memory' (2+2+2) Flashbulb Memories are when people have a particularly strong and often-detailed memory of where they were and what they were doing when a particular event occurred. This event could be a well-known event in the newspaper such as when Princess Diana died or it could be more personal event, which is memorable to that particular individual such as their wedding day or the death of a relative. Repression is the concept, which was introduced by Freud who suggested that we forget, because there is great anxiety associated with certain memories, which is too great to cope with. When this is the case we may use the unconscious defense mechanism of Repression to push out memories into the unconscious. These memories continue to exist but out of the conscious memory. For example memories of been abused as a child may be to disturbing for a person to cope with and may be out of conscious recall. ...read more.

Middle

Research shows that more familiar and distinctive faces are remembered better after long delays. Davis and Jenkins found that t5he accuracy of face recognition id significantly reduced if subjects are shown composite photo-fit pictures of other faces beforehand. Gorenstein and Ellsworth (1980) found that witnesses are more likely to identify (correctly of otherwise) a person from a line up if they had appeared in mug shots the witness had searched beforehand. It can be concluded that the witness of an event would have to have a good look at the criminal to remember the distinctive features, because if there is any incorrect information then the wrong person may be falsely accused. 3. The Multi-Store model proposed by Atkinson and Shriffrin has been very influential, but it has also been criticised for its over simplicity and lack of flexibility. To what extent does psychological research support the Multi-Store model as an adequate explanation of human memory? ...read more.

Conclusion

or Clive Wearing provide strong evidence for the distinction between STM and LTM. Anterograde amnesia is often caused by brain damage to the hippocampus and those suffering from it are incapable of transferring new information between STM and LTM. They attract in a world of experience that only lasts as long as their STM does. They often retain a large amount of LTM for events up until the point of brain damage and maintain their procedural memories. Despite the fact that they are incapable of gaining new long-term declarative memory for semantic or episodic information, most are able to learn new procedural skills. Research by Baddely and Warrington (1970) shows that if these people are given free recall experiments they show good recency effects, but poor primacy effects. This research provides support for the Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory and proves that to a certain extent it is a reliable model. However there are many criticisms of this model, which cause it to become a less accurate in terms of explaining human memory and the way information passes through the stores. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate 2 Models Of Memory

    4 star(s)

    STM is very limited; researched by Miller in 1956 it is supposed to be 7 items plus or minus 2. For example, you are processing the words you read on the screen in your STM. However, if I ask, "What is your telephone number?"

  2. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    The music was played simultaneously after looking at and learning the words for a minute. This target population of 17 years old was seen as a suitable age for the investigation and generalisation can be made on this age set, from the set of data derived for this investigation.

  1. Primacy and Recency effect

    a great difference in the recall rate of the words being recalled from the first ? of the words and the last ? of the words from the word list. 7.9-5.5=2.4 which shows that the difference between the first ?

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    No one participating in the study was harmed physically, emotionally or mentally also. To ensure this, participants were constantly reminded in the experiment that they could withdraw at any stage, which ensured the legitimacy of the experiment. It is a strength also that almost all research obtained supports the relevant

  1. Categorisation in Long-Term Memory

    * Paper (for the participants to write on) * A classroom (to conduct the experiment in) * A stopwatch (to time how long participants get to Procedure 1. A list of 15 words categorized was designed. There were 3 chosen categories, each category contained 5 words.

  2. 'Organisation in Memory'.

    I selected two participants at a time and gave one the organised word list and one the disorganised word list. Apparatus/materials I used two word lists, one of which contained a list of organised words and one where the words were arranged at random (see appendix 1 and 2).

  1. Stroop Effect

    To counteract this, random sampling could be used. This could be done by randomly selecting participants electronically using computers. To improve the validity, stratified random sampling could be used. This is where selection of participants is chosen from specific groups.

  2. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    Both groups were shown a set of slides leading up to a car accident, however for one group there was a difference in one of the slides. Whilst one group saw a red car stopping at a 'Yield' sign at a junction, the other group saw the car stopping at a 'Stop' sign at the junction.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work