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Explain what is meant by the terms, 'Flashbulb memory', 'Repression' and 'Reconstructive Memory' (2+2+2).

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Psychology Exam Questions 1. Explain what is meant by the terms, 'Flashbulb memory', 'Repression' and 'Reconstructive Memory' (2+2+2) Flashbulb Memories are when people have a particularly strong and often-detailed memory of where they were and what they were doing when a particular event occurred. This event could be a well-known event in the newspaper such as when Princess Diana died or it could be more personal event, which is memorable to that particular individual such as their wedding day or the death of a relative. Repression is the concept, which was introduced by Freud who suggested that we forget, because there is great anxiety associated with certain memories, which is too great to cope with. When this is the case we may use the unconscious defense mechanism of Repression to push out memories into the unconscious. These memories continue to exist but out of the conscious memory. For example memories of been abused as a child may be to disturbing for a person to cope with and may be out of conscious recall. ...read more.


Research shows that more familiar and distinctive faces are remembered better after long delays. Davis and Jenkins found that t5he accuracy of face recognition id significantly reduced if subjects are shown composite photo-fit pictures of other faces beforehand. Gorenstein and Ellsworth (1980) found that witnesses are more likely to identify (correctly of otherwise) a person from a line up if they had appeared in mug shots the witness had searched beforehand. It can be concluded that the witness of an event would have to have a good look at the criminal to remember the distinctive features, because if there is any incorrect information then the wrong person may be falsely accused. 3. The Multi-Store model proposed by Atkinson and Shriffrin has been very influential, but it has also been criticised for its over simplicity and lack of flexibility. To what extent does psychological research support the Multi-Store model as an adequate explanation of human memory? ...read more.


or Clive Wearing provide strong evidence for the distinction between STM and LTM. Anterograde amnesia is often caused by brain damage to the hippocampus and those suffering from it are incapable of transferring new information between STM and LTM. They attract in a world of experience that only lasts as long as their STM does. They often retain a large amount of LTM for events up until the point of brain damage and maintain their procedural memories. Despite the fact that they are incapable of gaining new long-term declarative memory for semantic or episodic information, most are able to learn new procedural skills. Research by Baddely and Warrington (1970) shows that if these people are given free recall experiments they show good recency effects, but poor primacy effects. This research provides support for the Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory and proves that to a certain extent it is a reliable model. However there are many criticisms of this model, which cause it to become a less accurate in terms of explaining human memory and the way information passes through the stores. ...read more.

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