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Factors that Affect Growth and Development.

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Introduction

Factors that Affect Growth and Development 1.) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Edward Thorndike first introduced operant conditioning although B.F Skinner developed and refined the idea. The idea is mainly concerned with shaping and modifying behaviour. Skinner also worked with animals and rewarded them with food if they did as required. The food reward acted as a positive reinforcement. When animals did not do as Skinner required he subjected them to unpleasant stimuli such as electric shocks. The learning theory influenced how adults shape or modify a child's behaviour. Be selectively reinforcing behaviour that is wanted, adults can change the way children behave. Operant conditioning is very powerful. It means that if you have a pleasant experience, you are more likely to repeat your behaviour. Piaget (1896-1980) Jean Piaget was a Swiss zoologist who is widely recognised as having influenced the way young children are taught. He became interested in the way children's thought processes developed while working on intelligence tests. He noticed that children were routinely giving the same 'wrong' answers and became interested in why this happened. Over a period of years he studied children, including keeping a diary of his own children. He discovered that children's answers were not random but followed by a logical pattern based on conclusions drawn from their own experiences. Piaget called their conclusions schemas. An example of a schema that is common among children, is to believe that everyone lives with a parent figure. For example, a young child might watch an adult break something and comment 'his mummy will be cross with him!' Piaget also felt that children as well as learning about their world by developing and adapting schemas, children also seemed to pass through four stages of conceptual development, which linked, to their biological development. ...read more.

Middle

Excess alcohol, caffeine, or sugar may stress the adrenal glands and decrease the amount of adrenal androgens available for conversion to oestrogen, thereby lowering oestrogen and making menopausal symptoms worse. Smoking decreases oestrogen production by the ovaries, leading to earlier menopause and osteoporosis. Stressful life events that may contribute to the emotional symptoms at the time of menopause include children leaving home and caring for aging parents. 4.) Erikson believes that we go through eight life stages. The stages are: Stage One, First Year of Life: Trust versus Mistrust. Babies have to decide whether the world and the people around them are safe and friendly or hostile. If babies do not have their needs met, they may decide their world is a hostile one. This can mean they would find it harder to form relationships later on in life. Stage Two, 1-3 Years: Autonomy versus shame and doubt. Children are learning to explore their environment and develop some control over their bodies and bowel movements. They may try to do this for the first time - e.g. dressing. If children are not given encouragement to explore or are made to feel guilty about toilet accidents, they may feel doubt about themselves. This can mean they will be less independent when older. Stage Three, 3-5 Years: Initiative versus guilt. Children are increasingly able to plan and carry out activities. They also need to learn about their gender role. Children need to feel they are independent, although they need to learn what the boundaries on their behaviour are. Too much control of the child may result in a fearful, dependent child. Stage Four, 6-12 Years: Industry versus Inferiority. In these years, children are comparing themselves to other children. ...read more.

Conclusion

Protein-energy malnutrition leads to a variety of problems, including gastrointestinal disorders, stunted growth, poor mental development, and high rates of infection. Prolonged malnutrition can lead to starvation, a condition in which the body's tissues and organs deteriorate. Long-term starvation almost always results in death. Alcohol Alcohol has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body, and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolonged periods of excessive drinking may further complicate matters. Advanced cases often require hospitalisation. The effects on major organ systems are cumulative and include a wide range of digestive-system disorders such as ulcers, inflammation of the pancreas, and cirrhosis of the liver. Larger quantities inhibit or depress higher thought processes, reducing inhibition, anxiety, and guilt. As a person becomes intoxicated, speech may become loud and slurred. Impaired judgment may lead to incautious behaviour, and physical reflexes and muscular co-ordination may become affected. If drinking continues, complete loss of physical control follows, ending in a possibility of death. Smoking Smokers are at increased risk for cancer of the lungs, larynx, oral cavity, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Smoking causes an increased risk of dying from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Babies born to mothers who smoke during pregnancy are also at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome. There is also an increased risk of babies having low birth weight, spontaneous abortions, and stillbirths. Furthermore, certain complications of pregnancy, some of which may be life threatening (such as raised blood pressure), are also associated with smoking. 8.) All aspects of development are continuous throughout life i.e. physical, intellectual, social and emotional development. The lifespan can be categorized into: * Infants (O-3 years) * Young children (4-9 years) * Adolescents (10-18 years) * Adults (19-65 years) * Elderly people (65 years +) Emma Goulthorp Human Growth and Development ...read more.

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