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Family Models of Schizophrenia

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Introduction

Family models Early theories: based on observations- not supported well by research Double bind theory (Bateso '56): child has repeated experiences with family members in which receives contradictory messages e.g. 'looks sleepy, go to bed now"-shows concern for welfare of child but hostility and desire to get child out of the way suggested by body language/tone Repeated exposure to contradictory messages �child resorts to self deceptions communication problems etc. These interactions prevent the development of internally coherent construction of reality, and in the long run, this manifests itself as schizophrenic symptoms (e.g. flattened affect and withdrawal). R.D. Laing schizophrenia reasonable response to an insane world. Research before 1970's = view that dysfunctional families = most common schizophrenia HOWEVER = family interaction only studied after diagnosis of schizophrenia rarely involved proper control groups Hence Recent research = based on expressed emotion; originally by Brown ('72) ...read more.

Middle

Also expressed emotions measured- may only use one observation or interview which maybe insufficient to give accurate picture. Kalifi and Torabi ('96) found out that the high prevalence of EE in Iranian culture (over protective mothers and rejective fathers) was one of the main causes of schizophrenic relapses. Expressed emotion much more universal empirical support than the double bind theory. However it is unsure whether EE is a cause or an effect of SZ. But it has led to an effective form where high EE relatives our shown to reduce levels of EE. Hogarty et al ('91) found this therapy significantly reduce relapse rates. However, as with all therapies, EE intervention key element or other aspects family intervention may have helped. ...read more.

Conclusion

COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS Physical basis for the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. A link between excess dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, working memory. Machine, virtual hallucinations, TV tell you to kill yourself. Intention is to show their hallucinations are not real. As yet no evidence that this will provide a successful treatment. Socio-cultural factors Life events and schizophrenia Higher risk of schizophrenia episodes is the occurrence of stressful life events. Discrete stresses, death of close relative or break up of a relationship. Brown and Birley ('68) prior to a schizophrenic episode, patients previously experienced schizophrenia twice many stressful life events compared healthy control group. Mechanisms through which stress factors trigger schizophrenia are not known, high levels of physiological arousal associated with neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved (Fallon et al., '96). FREUD THERE IS NO RESEARCH EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT FREUD'S SPECIFIC IDEAS CONCERNING SCHIZOPHRENIA, EXCEPT FAMILY PATTERNS. ...read more.

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