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Friendship and development

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´╗┐Psychology Half-Term assignment Name two indicators of attachment identified by Schaffer and Emerson Schaffer and Emerson identified two aspects to use indicators for attachment these are:- Separation anxiety and Stranger Anxiety. John Bowlby advocates the idea that deprivation during the critical period has derogatory effects in later life in extreme cases of maternal deprivation it leads to affectionless psychopathy Jack?s case show cognitive difficulty as his case seems to support Bowlby?s maternal theory as he never had an attachment to his mother and lacked the continuous care that Bowlby insists must be present for 5 years. Furthermore, the child?s attachment relationship with their primary caregiver leads to the development of an internal working model Jack?s model is based upon a broken relationship and so moral decline and lack of cognitive development with a lack of social skill is quite evident. Discuss what psychologists have discovered about the development of friendship. Refer to evidence in your answer. (12 mark) ...read more.


Though these studies seemingly support Selman?s categorisation they are based upon retrospective data they may not be accurate as memory is not 100% reliable. Secondly, sex differences have been said to affect the development of friendships Girls relationships have been said to be more intensive as they seem to prefer an emotional connection with another while boys? relationships have been group related and they tend to focus more on the group than on individual cultivation of emotional relationships with one another. Benenson found that girls had more best friends but boys relationships lasted longer though girls were found to be more worried about the relationship. Secondly, Benenson did a further study into this by interviewing 10yr olds and asking them to rate on a scale important aspects of a friendship girls data revealed that they were more interested in intimate relationships where secrets can be shared. ...read more.


Kandal found that friendships last longer if similarity is found. Attractiveness:- Preference to attractive peers, this effects girls more than boys, it may be linked to status or 'being a good sport' Personality:- Rejected children are often aggressive and disruptive Dodge found a link between personality traits and their popularity. Early relationships: - According to IWMM, the earliest bonds act as the lead for future ones. It may be that unpopular and rejected children had unsatisfactory bonds and lack and appropriate internal working model. Poor social skills. Though granting great insight into the causes of popularity and rejection it is extremely difficult to assume a cause and effect relationship all evidence is correlation and thus one thing cannot be assumed to cause another. Schaffer suggests that it may be temperament and personality that cause popularity and rejection aggression would indeed be key to this the more aggressive a child is the more likely they are to experience rejection. ...read more.

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3* This essay shows mostly relevant knowledge about this topic with some discussion. Remember to plan and proofread.

Marked by teacher Stephanie Duckworth 10/09/2013

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