• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Friendship and development

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Psychology Half-Term assignment Name two indicators of attachment identified by Schaffer and Emerson Schaffer and Emerson identified two aspects to use indicators for attachment these are:- Separation anxiety and Stranger Anxiety. John Bowlby advocates the idea that deprivation during the critical period has derogatory effects in later life in extreme cases of maternal deprivation it leads to affectionless psychopathy Jack?s case show cognitive difficulty as his case seems to support Bowlby?s maternal theory as he never had an attachment to his mother and lacked the continuous care that Bowlby insists must be present for 5 years. Furthermore, the child?s attachment relationship with their primary caregiver leads to the development of an internal working model Jack?s model is based upon a broken relationship and so moral decline and lack of cognitive development with a lack of social skill is quite evident. Discuss what psychologists have discovered about the development of friendship. Refer to evidence in your answer. (12 mark) ...read more.


Though these studies seemingly support Selman?s categorisation they are based upon retrospective data they may not be accurate as memory is not 100% reliable. Secondly, sex differences have been said to affect the development of friendships Girls relationships have been said to be more intensive as they seem to prefer an emotional connection with another while boys? relationships have been group related and they tend to focus more on the group than on individual cultivation of emotional relationships with one another. Benenson found that girls had more best friends but boys relationships lasted longer though girls were found to be more worried about the relationship. Secondly, Benenson did a further study into this by interviewing 10yr olds and asking them to rate on a scale important aspects of a friendship girls data revealed that they were more interested in intimate relationships where secrets can be shared. ...read more.


Kandal found that friendships last longer if similarity is found. Attractiveness:- Preference to attractive peers, this effects girls more than boys, it may be linked to status or 'being a good sport' Personality:- Rejected children are often aggressive and disruptive Dodge found a link between personality traits and their popularity. Early relationships: - According to IWMM, the earliest bonds act as the lead for future ones. It may be that unpopular and rejected children had unsatisfactory bonds and lack and appropriate internal working model. Poor social skills. Though granting great insight into the causes of popularity and rejection it is extremely difficult to assume a cause and effect relationship all evidence is correlation and thus one thing cannot be assumed to cause another. Schaffer suggests that it may be temperament and personality that cause popularity and rejection aggression would indeed be key to this the more aggressive a child is the more likely they are to experience rejection. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Social Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

3* This essay shows mostly relevant knowledge about this topic with some discussion. Remember to plan and proofread.

Marked by teacher Stephanie Duckworth 10/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Social Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk explores the theme of masculinity through clever characterisation, exploration ...

    4 star(s)

    I believe this represents the American Dream and conformity contrasted against Tyler's vision of anarchy and chaos in a non-conformist nightmare. The language choice in this seems dismissive of the boss' dream. "Some" suggests that the dream is irrelevant. The boss also represents Joe's idea of his father.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The effect of the Level of Processing on the amount of information recalled

    4 star(s)

    if they did not wish to take part, however informed consent was not gained. This raised some ethical issues but was addressed by debriefing participants as to what was the aim of the study and explained why it was conducted.

  1. Identify a transition that may be experienced by a child or group of children. ...

    on the warmth of Pre School staff, explaining that the child missed having cuddles and were not keen on the more authorative role of their new teachers. In order to ease the transition to school teachers must be aware of the concerns felt by children.

  2. What are the main methods of investigation available to psychologists? Drawing on evidence from ...

    Observational studies tend to be required when a psychologist is interested in a variable that cannot be manipulated, for example, gender in such cases experiments are not appropriate. Correlation studies are observationally based and are often used when trying to investigate things like the effect of personality variables on behaviour.

  1. An Investigation to see whether the halo effect is present when rating personality ...

    found similar results whereby individuals connect good character traits with more physically attractive people. The halo effect was first investigated by Edward Thorndike (1920) who found that when army officers were asked to rate their charges in terms of intelligence, physique, leadership and character there was a high cross correlation between attractiveness and these good character traits.

  2. Nature of Relationships in different cultures

    noted that in nearly half of the arranged marriages that he researched, the spouses reported that they had fallen in love with each other. This contradicts the statement that romantic love isn't important in non-Western relationships. However, Chinese people associate romantic love with pain and unfulfilled affection.

  1. Parkers participant observation describes The Boys everyday lives but what else does it do? ...

    is possible to see that in the many times throughout the study he did stop the boys from committing crimes and therefore affecting the study. Due to his involvement in the gang he did many a times change their behaviour, not due to his presence but because of his actions as part of the gang.

  2. Conformity and Obedience - Related Studies and Their Relevance in Modern Society.

    The naïve participants were always last but one to answer. In 12 of 18 trials the confederates gave a unanimous incorrect answer, these 12 trials were called the critical trials. Participants conformed on 32 per cent of the critical trials, 74 per cent of participants conformed at least once and no participant conformed on all of the critical trials.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work