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Historical and cultural conditions that gave rise to the humanistic perspective.

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Introduction

The humanistic perspective Development and cultural contexts 1.HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONDITIONS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY AS A THIRD FORCE IN REACTION TO PREVIOUS DETERMINISTIC PERSPECTIVES Third force is HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY. Third because before that there were PSYCHODYNAMIC and BEHAVIOURIST. Psychodynamic was deterministic (all we say and do has cause even if we do it unconsciously�we are not aware). Behaviourists had environmental determinism (no freewill, everything we do is because we were influenced by environment). But Humanistic had freewill. It means that your individual experiemce is important. Depending on the experience you will behave in future. Humans were free. THE IMPACT OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR WHICH RESULTED IN THE APPRECIATION OF THE NEED TO FOCUS ON THE TOTALITY OF HUMAN EXPERIENCES After WWII. there was optimism about future. Human nature was good. They wanted to break with the past. CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT OF COUNSELLING/THERAPY, AND THE USE OF COUNSELLING TECHNIQUES IN A VARIETY OF OCCUPATIONS We can mention here the CLIENT CENTRED THERAPY (CCT). It is a form of therapy developed which emphasizes the responsibility of the individual to determine the direction of change within therapy. ...read more.

Middle

-innate sense/knowledge of what's good or bad for organism -it is guided by actualising tendency(an innate drive which reflects the desire to grow,to develop and to enhance one's capacities -e.g.:actualising tendency motivates the baby to learn to walk CONCEPTS USED IN LOGOTHERAPY -Frankl's therapy to help people to find meaning �through talking people can discover their own meaning 2.ASSUMPTIONS ON WHICH KEY CONCEPTS ARE BASED FOCUS ON CONSCIOUS AWARENESSES -phenomenology �The biggest assumptions of humanistic approach is the belief that behaviour must be understood in terms of the subjective experience of the individual. If you wish to understand behaviour, the humanists argue, you must understand the person producing the behaviour-including how the person sees the world. FREEWILL IN HUMANS -freewill �your individual experience is important � depending on the experience you will behave in the future -humans are free -free to perceive yourself in different ways HUMANS ARE INSTRINCALLY GOOD UNIQUENESS OF INDIVIDUALS -we have to study humans because we are special -we are unique -study humans individually�we are all different and we should be treated like that -importance of individual experience�depending on experience you will behave in future INNATE DRIVE OF HUMANS TO ACHIEVE THEIR MAXIMUM POTENTIAL -Rogers and his actualizing tendency �innate ...read more.

Conclusion

It looks like he is already decided which qualities are desirable. Q-SORT TECHNIQUE -collection of cards-�all with descriptions of perosnality on -patient sorts cards into piles that reflect perceived self + ideal self -the change in the position of the cards over time is recorded -the "gap" between ideal + perceived self is given a numerical value -this value should decrease over time -NOT INTERNALY VALID 2.STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF METHODS QUALITATIVE DATA -in depth data -not numerical -comparisons/relationships�difficult to establish -observation use qualitative data -!not as scientific not as researchable! 3.ETHICS AND CONTROVERSIES OF RESEARCH RELEVANCE OF THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH Psychodynamic -freewill(patient do not know what is their problem) �because psychodynamic says that almost everything is in your unconscious (you are not aware) -unconscious is important for psychodynamic but not for humanistic,because everything you do is influenced by your unconscious Behaviourist -the mind is not important,because everything you do is influenced by environment -human nature might not be good ACCURACY OF BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Maslow and his archival research. This research is problem, because he done it only on great people as he called them and also it shows that he already decided which qualities are desirable. ...read more.

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