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How are attachments formed in different cultures?

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Introduction

How are attachments formed in different cultures? Culture is the learned and shared behaviour of members of society. Culture varies widely in different parts of the world and is constantly changing rapidly overt time. Cultural variations occur in many aspects of behaviour including child rearing. Due to this it is likely that differences in the types of attachments formed will occur. There have been three types of attachment identified by Ainsworth et al 1978 from her 'strange situation' study. 1. Secure attachment The infant prefers their caregiver over a stranger. The child will cry when the caregiver leaves but will stop when they return. 2. Insecure - resistant attachment Infants stay close to their caregiver before they leave. However when the caregiver returns, the infant may show both approach and avoidance type of behaviour towards their mother. 3. Insecure - avoidant attachment Infants do not cry when they are left alone. When the caregiver returns the child avoids or ignores them. ...read more.

Middle

German parents also consider the secure attachment behaviour to be too 'clingy' and discourage it. As a result of this, a high proportion of attachments were classified as insecure - avoidant. Studies conducted in Japan Studies of Japanese children and their caregivers using the strange situation show high levels of insecure - resistant attachments of 25 % with only 5.2% of infants with insecure- avoidant attachments. This was found by Takahashi 1986. Research discovered that childrearing 'norms' in Japan require that children are never left alone and are very rarely left in the care of anyone else. Due to this, when a child is left alone they become very distressed and unhappy so when the caregiver returns they will approach the caregiver but with great caution out of fear that if they get too close to their caregiver they will be abandoned again, thus creating a high proportion of insecure attachments. Studies conducted in Israel Sagi et al 1985 found Israeli infants showed a similarly high proportion of insecure - resistant attachments as in Japan. ...read more.

Conclusion

Whereas in China there is a high rate of secure attachments because parents in China value interdependence. However in Japan there is a high level of insecure - resistant attachments because the children are never left alone and it is only in very rare situations that the child will be left in the care of someone other than there mother. There is also a high level of insecure - avoidant attachments formed in Israel. However this is not due to the same reasons as in Japan. It is due to the fact that Israeli children have little contact with strangers and it is only family members that take care of the child. Finally in Germany there is a high proportion of insecure - avoidant attachments being formed. This is due to the fact that parents value independence and believe that the behaviour of children with secure attachments to be too 'clingy' and will discourage their child from this type of behaviour. In general terms culture affects the parenting styles used in child rearing which in turn affects the type of attachment developed by a child. ?? ?? ?? ?? Gemma Bolt A Level Psychology ...read more.

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