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How Children Develop and Learn

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Introduction

Hayley Thomson A5PL04 How Children Develop and Learn Outcome 2 Jerome Bruner Jerome Bruner was born in New York City in 1915. At the age of 17 he began studying at Duke University, and then at Harvard where he received his PhD in 1947. He became a member of a faculty after gaining his PhD, and obtained the position as professor of psychology, as well as director and founder of the Centre for Cognitive Studies. 'During World War 2, Bruner worked as a social psychologist exploring propaganda public opinion and social attitudes for U.S. Army intelligence.' www.infed.org In the 1940's, Bruner began working alongside Leo Postman, on the ways in which perception is influenced by motivations, needs and expectations (mental sets). They analysed perception from an operative orientation. Bruner also started inspecting the function of procedures in the course of human categorisation, and more commonly, the evolution of human cognition. ...read more.

Middle

This is the process of building and using representations in order to make sense of the world. Incoming information is organised in terms of pre-existing categories, or we create new ones. Where we can't perceive things, we "go beyond the information given" and make inferences based on what we do know.' www.evolution.massey.ac.nz Bruner committed himself to important experimental work, pinpointing our power to identify what belongs to a division of events or objects, and how we can determine what doesn't belong. Concept formation is the first awareness that there are altered categories and classes, and that there are peculiar characteristics between events and objects that impact categorisation. Hayley Thomson A5PL04 Concept attainment is the following level of development, where we can certify what those distinct attributes may be and how we can put them to use to discover what belongs and what doesn't. In the 1970's, Bruners work developed and he started to investigate the courses by which communication is transmitted and the way infants begin to use speech. ...read more.

Conclusion

The school curriculum is perfectly arranged in a whirl wind manner to assist the process, so that similar issues are redeveloped at subsequent age or level of understanding to continuously emphasise development. Many critics said that the children might begin to relay on the assistance of the adult and therefore will be unable to proceed with a task without help. Others debated that the tasks given to the children may be to difficult for the child to understand without the Hayley Thomson A5PL04 adults help so their standard of work may begin to fall when the adult withdraws their support. All adults involved with education put this theory to use everyday as we are always trying to encourage children to carry out a task they have never done before. I have sat with children doing a jigsaw puzzle and I help the child by explaining that the flat edges go at the side for example and then leave the child to finish the puzzle alone. ...read more.

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