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How levels of processing affects memory

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Introduction

An Investigation into How Levels of Processing Affects Memory Abstract The experiment is based on the research by Craik & Lockhart's levels of processing theory, which says that deeper levels of processing will help memory more than shallow levels. The aim was to find out whether categorised word lists improve recall rather than the same words in a random order. My hypothesis is that more words would be recalled from the categorised wordlist than the uncategorised wordlist. The sampling method was opportunity sampling and the first 10 students found in the PE department were selected and I used independent groups for my design. The experiment happened in a laboratory and the participants were briefed on the experiment and the ethical issues involved were mentioned. One of them was given a wordlists and a stopwatch was used to give them 20 seconds to memorise and then 20 seconds to recall as many words as possible, which I ticked on a checklist. The results were then put into a graph. They showed that 60% of participants recalled over half the words on the categorised wordlist and only 20% recalled more than half of the uncategorised wordlist. This shows that deeper levels of processing are used when remembering words from a categorised wordlist compared to an uncategorised wordlist. Introduction Aim: to find out whether memorising words from a categorised word lists would help recall more words than memorising the same words but in a random order. ...read more.

Middle

The sampling method chosen for this experiment was opportunity sampling. The first 10 year 12 students that were seen in the P.E. department were chosen for the experiment if they complied and were wiling to participate. Opportunity sampling involves choosing people who are willing, available and suitable to take part, and are members of the target population. They are representative because the experimenter can choose who they want to take part to balance the different types of people. This is a very efficient method of sampling and allows for you to sample people who fit the desired criteria. Apparatus and materials * Stop Watch-This is needed so that the memorising time and recall time can be noted. * Pen- this will be needed so that the words recalled can be checked off. * Checklists-I will need the checklist when doing the experiment as it is an efficient way of recording the words recalled * Wordlists (categorised (appendix 5) and uncategorised(appendix 6))-These are needed so that the participants can learn the words. Words used to test participants' recall * Spare room- needed so the experiment can be carried without interruption * Participants-memory test will be carried out on them Procedure Firstly a word processor was used to create 2 sheets with 20 words. Five words main words were selected, these words would be the category and for each of the words, 3 other words were selected that would link or fit in the category in some way e.g. ...read more.

Conclusion

The aim could be to investigate whether rhyming words will be more likely to be recalled than words that do not rhyme. This is related to levels of processing as the words that do rhyme should be processed at a deeper level than the words that do not rhyme. Therefore more rhyming words will be recalled compared to the non-rhyming words. I would have a sheet of paper with 20 words. Ten (10) of the words are rhyming words, e.g. bean, cream, stream, mean etc. and the other 10 would be non-rhyming words e.g. tree, chair, road, spoon etc. I would then record how many words are recalled and note whether they are the rhyming words or not. The results table would look like, this. Conclusion When memorising words, which require semantic processing, the words will be retained more as the memory is more durable compared to the words that are memorised at a shallow or perceptual level. As the results show when a person has to use their brain more when memorising words they will be able to recall more of the words. This links in with the levels of processing theory, as memorising words from the categorised list involves higher levels of processing. As the average amount of words recalled for the categorised wordlist was higher than the amount of words recalled from the uncategorised wordlist my results support my theory. I conclude that if something is processed at a deep level it will be retained for longer than something that is processed at a shallow level. ...read more.

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