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I.Q. or otherwise known as intelligence quotient is an intelligence test to determine different intelligence groups. Discuss.

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Introduction

Intelligence I.Q. or otherwise known as intelligence quotient is an intelligence test to determine different intelligence groups. The formula to work out a person's intelligence is when their mental age is divided by their chronological age and multiplied by 100. Intelligence tests are carried out for various reason which I will also explain. I will outline and evaluate some theories researched by psychologists throughout. The 1st I.Q. test was carried out by A Binet(1905), this was to measure a child's potential, comprehension and other cognitive processes. The test was then taken over by Stanford(1916) and is now formerly known as the Stanford-Binet test. The tests were used throughout the world for various reasons, i.e. ...read more.

Middle

Some psychologists have different theories about intelligence, whether it is inherited or environmental, twin studies is the most popular way of assessing this on individual differences. Identical twins(MZ) twins from the same genes, and fraternal(DZ) twins from 2 different eggs. Burt claimed to have investigated 53 pairs of twins who had been reared in different environments, he found higher correlation in their I.Q'S proving that intelligence must be inherited. A strong criticism of Burt's theory came from Oliver Gullie he stated that Burt's research was fake, and he invented data, he also said that Burt published papers from 2 research assistants that didn't exist. Jensen accepted Burt's finding's although he stated that 80% intelligence was heredity and 20% was environmental. ...read more.

Conclusion

Adoption studies also came under criticism, that small samples used and selective placement makes it hard to determine the effects of heredity/environment. I.Q.'s of young children are unreliable as they change as they develop and children who are adopted are usually place with families who share a similar environment. I.Q. tests are good if used correctly although it is debatable if they are an accurate measure of intelligence however improvements in the quality of education can raise intelligence levels. The test were designed by white middle class psychologists which make the tests culture bias. Children are said to perform better second time around. Needless to say intelligence tests can be beneficial for diagnosing educational problems, however they also have their downfalls, whereas an individuals entire future may be determined form them. ...read more.

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