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In explaining the development of be examined Psychology since the 19c, the subjects which will be examined are, Behaviourist, Cognitive and the Humanistic approaches.

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Introduction

In explaining the development of be examined Psychology since the 19c, the subjects which will be examined are, Behaviourist, Cognitive and the Humanistic approaches. Behaviourism was developed by scientists in early to mid 19c and continued to be the dominant force in Psychology until the 1950's. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was one of the first to explore this method, which is known as Classical Conditioning. This was a form of learning in which Pavlov observed a particular response with a particular stimulus. In 1927 Pavlov was observing the salivation reflex in dogs. He trained the dogs to expect food when a bell sounded the dogs eventually associated the bell with food and would salivate when the bell was rung. This was therefore a conditioned reflex. ...read more.

Middle

Skinners Box experiment involved rewarding rats with food pellets to stop the rats displaying escape-seeking behaviour, he rewarded the rats with food pellets to strengthen good behaviour. Skinner trained the rats to press on a lever to receive the food and found that he could easily control their behaviour using reinforcement. The goal was ultimately to predict behaviour. These ideas of operant conditioning have been positively applied to human behaviour. The Cognitive approach has over shadowed the Behaviourist approach as the dominant perspective. Cognitive psychology looks at the study of the human mind with the emphasis on external observable events and how the brain takes in, transforms and uses information. The Latin definition for cognitive is 'cognito', meaning to apprehend, understand and know. There are three main areas in the cognitive approach. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Humanistic approach was developed in America during the 1960's. Known as the 'Third Force/Approach in Human Psychology' it focuses on what it means to be a human being and the uniqueness of the individual. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Developed the client centred approach; he was the founder of the counselling movement. Rogers believed that we all have the potential for growth and development. Rogers developed this approach as an alternative to the Psychoanalytical and Behaviourist approaches. Rogers believed in the concept of self and the power of each individual for self-healing with the emphasis on individual responsibility. These are the strengths of the Humanistic approach, the weakness are that it is vague, unscientific, un-testable and relies on self reports and is open to free will. Other scientists argue if counselling actually effective. In conclusion, all the approaches mentioned in this essay have helped to shape psychology as it is today, a much valued science, each approach enhancing or encouraging more ways of understanding humankind. ...read more.

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