• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"In order to prevent forgetting, it is important to consider why it occurs".

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"In order to prevent forgetting, it is important to consider why it occurs" The concept of forgetting suggests that something has disappeared from memory - it is not available. Or it could that memory is simply mislaid - it is not accessible. Availability Accessibility Concerns STM Concerns STM and LTM only Interference Theory It is assumed that one set of learning in some way interferes with another set and wipes out the memory. Proactive interference is when previous learning interferes with later learning (Past experience interferes with current recall). Retroactive interference is when later learning disrupts memory for earlier learning. (Successive experience interferes with recall of material learned earlier). A study that proves this is the Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924) ...read more.

Middle

Trace Decay Theory Forgetting might also be due to the gradual decaying of the memory traces in long-term memory this has also been suggested for short-term memory. It is hard to study the physical and psychological changes directly. The theory is if a person does nothing during the time of learning and recall then they forget the material this would mean that the trace has disappeared. Tulving and Psotka have tested the theory. Participants were given a long list of words to remember. The words belonged to several different categories (e.g. articles of furniture, four footed animals). The participants were tested twice. On the first occasion they were asked for free (non-cued) recall, i.e. to write down all the words they could remember. ...read more.

Conclusion

Criticisms Experiments have been attempted where subjects have been subjected to anxiety producing situations to see if forgetting occurs. However these experiments are ethically questionable as they affect the participant's psychological well being, and they probably do not simulate real live anxiety producing situations. Cue Dependent Forgetting This is an example of forgetting because of lack of accessibility. What happens is that information is in your memory but you cannot access it until an appropriate cue is given. This information is said to be available but not accessible. This may explain why a delirious person can remember a foreign language even if it has not been spoken since childhood. Also this can explain why people who haven't used algebra for years can remember it if they follow a refresher course (Badrick and Hall (1991). Today it is the most appropriate conclusion that most (but not all) of forgetting is cue dependent. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. This study is based on the theory of cue dependent forgetting - more specifically, ...

    The words were covered with a sheet. A class of younger students randomly suggested words for the experiment, having no contact with the participants. It was suggested that the words be recorded onto tape and then played to the participants as different participants had a different view of the white board.

  2. Cue dependent Forgetting. This experiment investigates Tulvings theory of cue dependent forgetting, with ...

    Control Control variables were the amount of words given to each participant in both condition, the time at the encoding and retrieval of the words, and the time gap between encoding and retrieval need to be the same for the experiment to work well.

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    d) Have the participants read the given instructions. Say, "You are to read the instructions given to you in front of you." e) Ask the participants whether they understood the instructions and assist the participants if there are any questions.

  2. Cue-dependent forgetting theory by Tulving

    Another background study is Schab (1991). This study supports Tulving's cue dependant theory. Schab did an experiment where 72 Yale graduates took part either, 1. In the presence of chocolate odour or 2. In an unscented environment or 3. By following instructions to imagine and think about the odour.

  1. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    without further prompting. Participant A05 similarly commented that she knew how many words of each category she had forgotten. Other participants in Condition A also commented that they counted how many words they had forgotten. This shows that, even without categories being explicitly demonstrated, participants in Condition A had the

  2. the affect interference has on the recall of words

    The time lengths were both the same so forgetting could not be a result of decay. Therefore there results were interpreted for the theory of interference. Baddeley and Hitch (1997) also provided evidence for the interference theory testing it against decay.

  1. Forgetting is a common process that occurs near enough every day. The general ...

    This idea was suggested in the 1950s, it refers to the tendency for one memory to 'interfere with' the accurate retrieval of another (similar) memory. There are two types of interference - proactive interference (PI), this is where past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something, and retroactive interference

  2. Retrieval Induced Forgetting in Coherent Narrative Text.

    randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they were presented with the trait items either once, three times or six times, and Macrae and Macleod found that frequency of repeated retrieval practice did not increase the magnitude of temporary forgetting.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work