• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this essay the biological, cognitive and the psychodynamic approach will be explored and compared on how they explain human behaviour.

Extracts from this document...


Transfer-Encoding: chunked Compare and contrast three psychological approaches to explaining human behaviour An approach is a perception that consists of specific principles about human behaviour. Each approach can have different theories within itself but, they will all emphasise on particular assumptions (Glassman & Hadad, 2013). In this essay the biological, cognitive and the psychodynamic approach will be explored and compared on how they explain human behaviour. Charles Darwin may have been a biologist but his book Origin of species had massive repercussions on our knowledge on genetic inheritance (Darwin, 2013). His finding led to psychologists divulging further, which is now identified as the biological approach. The biological approach seeks to explain behaviour through four different means ? the brain, genes, the nervous system (neurotransmitters) and the endocrine system (hormones). It prepossesses that abnormal behaviour can be explained through the functioning of the biological system (Dwyer & Charles, 2003). This approach places key emphasis on inherited genes that make us more susceptible to certain conditions i.e. schizophrenia (Sammons, n.d.). Whether it be the comparative method (Harvery & Pagel, 1991) where we study animals in order to find out more about ourselves or, physiology where we look at our hormones or studies into our inheritance via twin studies they can all explain our behaviour. ...read more.


Freud?s method to treat patients is known as psychoanalysis which works on the idea that when memories are too powerful for the conscious mind they become repressed. They become stored in the unconscious, where they are not available by our immediate consciousness. Thus, making the unconscious silently influence our behaviour. The disagreements between our unconscious and conscious thoughts create conflict within ourselves known as psychic tension. The only way to release psychic tension is allowing repressed memories into the consciousness through psychoanalysis (Ward, 2014). During therapy, a therapist will act as a mediator, allowing the thoughts in our unconscious come to the surface through dream analysis (Sharpe, 1988) or Freudian slips (Freud, 2012). A case study which influenced Freud was The Case of Anna O. Dr Breuer worked with ?Anna? who experienced hysteria. During psychoanalysis, it became clear that she had acquired a phobia of drinking after a dog sipped from her glass. Other symptoms started when looking after her father. During discussions, it became apparent that she was suffering from anxiety towards the illness. Once these unconscious thoughts became conscious her paralysis stopped. (Cherry, 2017) The key limitation to this study is that it is not scientific therefore, it cannot be generalised. ...read more.


10-41. Harvery, P. H. & Pagel, M. D., 1991. The Comparitive Method in Evolutionary Biology. Volume 239. Heffner, C., n.d. Freud?s Structural and Topographical Model. [Online] Available at: https://allpsych.com/psychology101/ego/ [Accessed 29 October 2017]. Jarrett, C. & Ginsburg, J., 2017. Super Psychology a Totally Non-scary Guide to Psychology and What it Means. London: New Burlington Books. Rolls, G., 2005. Classic Case Studies in Psychology. 5th Edition ed. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd. Saigal, M., 2012. A Man With Conviction is a Hard Man to Change. In: The Psychology Book. London: Dorling Kindersley, p. 166?167. Sammons, A., n.d. The Biological Approach: the Basics. [Online] Available at: http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newResources/approaches/AS_AQB_approaches_BiopsychologyBasics.pdf [Accessed 29 October 2017]. Sappenfield, B., 1954. Personality Dynamics: an Integrative Psychology of Adjustment. American Psychology Association. Sharpe, E., 1988. Dream Analysis: A Practical Handbook of Psychoanalysis. Snowden, R., 2010. Freud the Key Ideas. 5th Edition ed. London: Hodder Education. Summers, R. & Jacques, B., 2010. The Other Psychotherapies. In: Psychodynamic Therapy: A Guide to Evidence-Based Practice. London: The Guildford Press, p. 63. Tomley, S., 2017. What Would Freud Do?: How the Greatest Psychotherapists Would Solve Your Everyday Problems. 1st Edition ed. London: Cassell. Ward, I., 2014. Introducing Psychoanalysis: a Graphic Guide. London: Icon Books Ltd. Wilson, S., 2012. A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. Classic World Literature Edition ed. Ware: Wordsworth Editions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the main approaches - Biological and Behaviourist, biological and cognitive, ...

    4 star(s)

    [12 Marks] There are many similarities and differences between the Biological and Behaviourist approaches. The first difference is that the biological approach focuses on nature whilst the behaviourist approach focuses on nurture. The behaviourist approach says that our behaviour is moulded by society which is a nurture belief.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast the five main perspectives in psychology

    3 star(s)

    and that present experiences are as important as past ones. The approach dismisses scientific methods of research, as they are deemed inappropriate for the study of humans. The two main exponents of humanist are Maslow and Rogers. Maslow's (1908-1970) research involved the motives that drive people towards self-actualisation.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast idiographic and nomothetic approaches to the study of Personality.

    Self report and questionnaires are used to obtain the measure of personality. The main representatives of this paradigm are Bandura, Rotter, Kelly and Mischel. 5.) Biological theories - are focused on our biological material and hormones and the influence of it in our behaviour.

  2. Schizophrenia. This essay shall discuss the various theoretical causes of schizophrenia including; biological explanations ...

    By this term he was describing communications that are inherently contradictory or conflicting, and which put the child in a 'no win' situation, (Stirling and Hellewell, 1999). It is argued that children who experience double binds may begin to lose their grip on reality and not think that their own

  1. Consider the Problems Faced by Psychologists in the Definition of Abnormality

    It was suggested by Sashidharan (1995) that racism and prejudice may negatively impact psychological wellbeing. This would be shown in the ethnic groups that have immigrated to Western countries. The way in which they are affected is not due to their cultural background, but rather the way in which they

  2. Outline and Evaluate One Biological and One Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia

    These effects have been trialled on rats. Randrup and Munkuad (1966) found that rats took on schizophrenic behaviours after being administered amphetamines, and the effects could be reversed through neuroleptic drugs. This suggests that dopamine has a role in schizophrenia. However, there are significant differences in the neuroanatomy of rats and humans, which could lead to such

  1. The contents of this essay will explain different psychological approaches to health and social ...

    Modelling is an excellent way of aiding service users to conquer anxieties, for example in social situations. Parents or guardians can help this fear by aiding their children feel comfortable in social situations; getting to know their children?s friends and their families; and involving their children in positive group activities,

  2. Level 2 Counselling skills. Theories -CBT, Psychodynamic and Person Centred.

    and what you do (Behaviour). These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of the other talking treatments, it focuses on the 'here and now' problems and difficulties. Instead of focusing on the causes of your distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve your state of mind now.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work