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Interpersonal attraction - Aggression, leadership - What attracts one person to another?

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Introduction

INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION AGGRESSION LEADERSHIP WHAT ATTRACTS ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER? a) Similarity. For example similar backgrounds, ages, attitudes, beliefs and interests. The more they have in common the more likely a couple are to stay together. b) Familiarity. The more a couple meet up the more attractive they become to each another. In a 1968 study, Zajonc showed his participants a large number of photographs. He found that there was a positive correlation between the number of times a photograph was shown and the attraction. c) Physical Attractiveness. The 'halo effect' infers that people who possess certain qualities have other good qualities. For example, if they are pretty or handsome then they will be nice people. The primacy effect means that when meeting people one is most likely to notice physical appearances first. Social exchange looks at the rewards and the costs of being in a relationship. The rewards have to be greater than the costs. When one is taking up too many of the other person's resources, the relationship is not working. Matching hypothesis. This is the idea that members of couples mostly match one another in degrees of physical attractiveness. Evolutionary psychology looks at attraction in terms of survival of the species. AGGRESSION A definition Aggression is regarded as anti-social behaviour and it is generally considered to be behaviour that harms or intends to harm someone or something. ...read more.

Middle

He proposed that: a) some people think it is wrong to behave aggressively b) some people have learned not to show aggression c) some people are afraid that the other person will be aggressive The Social Learning Explanation Exponents of this theory believe that aggression is not innate, that it is learned behaviour and that children learn it by observing others. For example, a child will observe and imitate his or her parents or principle carers. When the child sees that the most powerful person in his or her life is rewarded for aggressive behaviour, the child will imitate that behaviour. The message is reinforced when the mother or carer offers sweets as a bribe for good behaviour. Bandura's study involving a bobo doll demonstrated how children will copy the behaviour of adults. In this study, the children observed adults behaving aggressively towards a doll. When given a doll many of the children copied the aggressive behaviour. The highest levels of aggression amongst the children were recorded when they had seen the adult aggressors rewarded for their behaviour. When the children saw the aggressor punished, they were less likely to copy his behaviour. The children who saw no consequences for the aggressive behaviour - neither reward nor punishment - still had high levels of aggression. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lewin et al concluded that this showed that democratic leaders were the most effective. Smith and Peterson (1988) argued that the effectiveness of the group leader depended on the criterion which was being used to assess leadership. For example, if leadership was assessed in terms of productivity then the authoritarian leader was most effective because whilst he was supervising them the boys made more models and worked harder. However, if the role of an effective leader was seen as maintaining a good morale and a steady work level, then the democratic style of leadership was most effective. That importance of leadership was demonstrated by the third group in which few boys did any work at all and the lack of direction from the leader resulted in low morale and a lack of interest in the work. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) showed that children's educational performance could be affected by their teachers' expectations (self-fulfilling prophecy). The importance of managers' expectations was emphasised in the path-goal theory of leadership suggested by House (1971). This theory argues that people will tend to live up to the expectations that the leader has of them and that a good leader should see the people in his or her team as adult, responsible human beings. House proposed that workers respond most positively to leaders who respect them as individuals and who recognise their own personal goals. Kathy Ashworth 28 September 2004 ...read more.

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