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Investigate behaviourism, humanism, psychoanalytic and Erikson's 'eight stages of man' development approach to development psychology. Write detailed notes; in point form on each one.

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Introduction

Friday 3rd January 2003 BTEC National Diploma In Health Studies Adam Knight, Assignment 1 Unit 6: Psychology & Development Task 1 Using the library and any other resources at your disposal, investigate behaviourism, humanism, psychoanalytic and Erikson's 'eight stages of man' development approach to development psychology. Write detailed notes; in point form on each one. Or alternatively, design a poster to incorporate each one. List the main researchers in the field and state what investigations or experiments they are best known for. * People who accept 'behaviourism' see it as the principal force that controls the development in humans. The human species, as a whole are recognised as being extremely adaptable. By this I mean that people will 'adapt' to any changes in their society and by what the experience in life. Two American psychologists (John Watson and Burrhus F. Skinner) and a Russian physiologist (Ivan Pavlov) all worked to try and develop theories of learning. What they discovered was that people will develop skills and different abilities, all because of what they have encountered in their life. John Watson chose to make the study of psychology scientific by using only objective procedures such as lab experiments that were made to establish extremely important statistical results. Due to his behaviouristic view it led him to formulate a stimulus-response theory of psychology. In this theory all elaborate forms of behaviour, for example -emotions, habits, were seen as being composed of non complicated muscular and glandular elements that could easily be observed and measured. ...read more.

Middle

Anal Stage: Young children have to learn to control their muscles, especially their anal muscles. Toilet training is the first time the child has to control their bodily functions in order to coincide with the demands of society. The experiences a child has during this time may influence later development. Phallic Stage: Freud believes that children have sexual feelings to the opposite-sexed parent. As the child develops he/she learn to give up their opposite-sexed parent as a 'love object' and start to identify with the same sexed parent. Latency: Most children after the age of 5 or 6 resolve their love for the opposite-sexed parent. Children at this age are not yet biologically ready to reproduce so their sexuality is latent or waiting to express itself. Genital: With the onset of puberty adolescents become fully sexual and the 'life drive' is focused on sexual activity. * Erik Erikson based his theory of 'the eight ages of man' on Freud's psychodynamic ideas (which I have just written about). The first five stages of Erikson's theory are similar to that of Freud's. The only difference between the two theories is that Erikson's believes that the human species continue to develop throughout life, whereas Freud does not. The following is Erikson's 'Eight ages of man'- 1. Basic trust versus mistrust: (from birth to 1 years). 2. Autonomy versus Doubt: (from 2 to 4 years). 3. Initiative versus guilt: (4to 5 years). 4. Industry versus inferiority: (School age, 5 to 12 years). ...read more.

Conclusion

Behaviourism, is how the environment controls human behaviour, and if you experience something good or bad you will learn from it. I think that 'Behaviourism' is true because for example if you go out shopping when it has been raining and you walk past a large puddle and a bus comes along and splashes you making you all wet. Next time you go out shopping (after it has been raining), you will remember not to walk past any vast puddles, in order to stay dry. Psychoanalytic theory comprehends exploring the impact of early experiences in life on the mental functioning of a human. I also think this theory is true to some extend because if you are a child and your mother is afraid of spiders and you are not taught that they cannot harm you, your sub-conscious will pick up on this. You are then more than likely will be afraid of spiders later on in life. Erikson's 'eight ages of man' c) Apply these psychological theories to three different life-stages. Erikson's 'eight ages of man'; Erikson believed that at early adulthood (19 to 25years) that your instinct to want intimacy (love, romance, being close with one person) would fight with your instinct to want isolation (solitude, to be alone). Psychoanalytic; Freud believed that the social interaction you have at infancy will affect your social behaviour in later life. Behaviourism; In 1963 Bandura demonstrated that children (early childhood) observed adults behaving aggressively to a 'bobo doll' they were much more likely to get aggressive with the doll, when the had chance to play with it. ...read more.

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