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Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall

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Introduction

Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall STEPHAN AMARANATH Candidate No. 4204 Centre No. 13156 Table of Contents 1. Abstract 3 2. Introduction 4 3. Aims & Hypotheses 5 4. Method 6-7 5. Results 8-10 6. Discussion 11-12 7. References & Bibliography 13 8. Appendix 14 Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate in a natural setting whether images aid memory recall as did Bower in 1972. There are two conditions; condition 1 involving a grid of random words supported by images and condition 2 consisting only of random words. 20 participants were used for this research study, 10 were males and 10 were females aged from 16-25 gained through opportunity sampling. There were two groups/conditions of 10 (5 males, 5 females). The independent variables were materials for each condition (random words with images and words without images). The dependent was the recall from each participant. The results measured using central tendency and measures of dispersion, moderately showed participants were able to recall more words in condition 1 (words with images) than of condition 2 (words without images). Example: Mean for Condition 1 = 14.1 Mean for Condition 2 = 12.6 The inferential statistics, which enable us to draw clear conclusions about the likelihood of the hypothesis being true, is evidence for accepting the null hypothesis. The Mann-Whitney U-test: The observed value (35) is greater than the critical value (25). The probability of these results occurring through chance would have been greater than 5%. In this case, the null hypothesis is accepted and this rejects the experimental hypothesis. From the results of the study it can be concluded that there is evidence to illustrate that people do remember more with the aid of visual representation and also evidence to illustrate people remember more without any visual representation. Implications for further research is the effects of gender recall and discover if there is a significant effect for the sex of a participant on the types of gender associated images recalled and to compare the effects of visual and semantic codes in depth. ...read more.

Middle

with 20 random words and another grid with the same 20 random words but supported by images. 4. Those in condition 1 were given the grid in which words were supported by images and condition 2, given grid consisting of only words. 5. Researcher/experimenter had to limit speech as much as possible therefore participants were given standardised instructions, after reading and signing the statement of informed consent, which allowed participants the right to withdraw during the experiment. 6. Participants were given 1-minute to memorise as many of the 20 words. 7. After the 1-minute, grid of 20 words was removed. 8. Participants were presented a blank grid (same grid as the 20 words grid but blank spaces) on which they had to recall as many words, with no time limit. 9. After recalling as many words, participants had to indicate gender and age. 10. Participants were also debriefed after the experiment informing them of the nature/purpose of the experiment. * Controls Controlled variables were the words used, room and time for participants to memorize the words. The investigation used standardised procedures a form of experimental control to ensure that confounding variables are eliminated. Set of procedures that are the same for all participants; which can enable replication. Standardised instructions (control of investigator effects) were used; a set of instructions that are the same for all participants to avoid investigator effects. Standardised procedure and instructions found in the appendices (4 & 5). Results * Central Tendency Type of Average: Condition 1: Condition 2: Mean 14.1 12.6 Median 14.5 13.5 Mode No Common Number 16 Measures of central tendency are quantitative ways to describe the middle of a distribution of scores. There are three common measures of central tendency: mean, median, and mode. Calculations can be found in the appendices (18 & 19). The mean refers to a numerical average of the scores. Adding all the scores and dividing their sum by the number of scores obtain the mean. ...read more.

Conclusion

A matched participant design could have been used instead to deal with participant variables as participants are matched on key variables such as age and memory ability. Another problem of the study was the sample size. The study only used 20 participants, a small sample; therefore findings cannot be generalised to the rest of the population. So, a larger sample size of 50+ would be more representative and can be generalised. In addition, the investigation used opportunity sampling, which is very biased, and again it cannot be generalised. Random sampling would be the best method to select participants since it is potentially unbiased. An additional problem was the images used; some of the images were cartoon images (i.e. bible & pizza) and others were actual photographs (real life images, i.e. greenhouse). This may have been a problem since real life images may possibly be easier to remember than cartoon images or vice versa. To resolve such problem, would be by using only cartoon images alone or only real life images. The recall between genders may have wider implications: on the whole men have performed better than women, when studies have shown women should perform better than men. For example; women perform better than men in tasks such as verbal learning remembering tasks, name face association, and first last name associations learning (Larrabee and Crook, 1993). Ideas for a follow up research study is the effects of gender recall and discover if there is a significant effect for the sex of a participant on the types of gender associated images recalled and to compare the effects of visual and semantic codes in depth. There is evidence to illustrate that people do remember more with the aid of visual representation and evidence to illustrate people remember more without any visual representation. This itself suggests people do remember data and information differently (individual differences), i.e. acoustically, semantically. Therefore it is important to recognize these findings as they have strong insinuations for its involvement in everyday life, for example with teaching, revision and marketing. ...read more.

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