• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating Levels Of Processing Using Images

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Psychology: A Practical Investigation: Abstract: This investigation was based on the levels of processing approach, however using images as opposed to words with the three levels of processing being colour, shape and meaning. The aim was to investigate how these levels of processing affect the recall of images and the hypothesis stated that the level of processing will affect the number of images being recalled. The research method used was laboratory experiment and repeated measured design. 18 participants aged 16-19 from Southall sixth form were used and found by opportunity sampling. Results found that meaning level of processing resulted in most images recalled followed by shape and shallowest being colour. These results had proved that image recall can be affected by levels of processing just as words were used in Craik & Tulving's (1975) experiment. Introduction: Memory is critical in everyday lives. It is information people learn and recognise daily which had an influence of what a person does next. If events can be remembered then there must be some way of encoding this information of events. The three stages of encoding, storage and retrieval form the basis of learning and memory. Below are models of memory created: * Levels Of Processing - Craik & Lockhart (1972): This approach believed that it was more profitable to focus on process concerned with memory as oppose to the structure. ...read more.

Middle

Design: The research method being used in this investigation is experiments because of the control that it offers and the type of inferences that can be made. A laboratory experiment will be used as this ensures there is a well-controlled environment as opposed to a field experiment which is carried out in more natural environments which may cause distractions resulting in a lack of reliability. The independent variable in this experiment will be the different levels of processing based on either the colour of the image being shallowest, the shape of the image being deeper, and about the meaning of the image being the deepest level of processing. The dependent variable will be the number of images being able to be recalled. The distance the participants are from the images will be kept the same as well as the time they are given to recall the images and time each image is shown on the slideshow. One extraneous variable may be that the images used may have personal relation with some participants leaving them more likely to be able to recall them rather than because of the level of processing. However this may be the case with any image used and so is difficult to control. ...read more.

Conclusion

Shape had the highest dispersion rate although all were low. These results support Craik & Lockhart's levels of processing theory as similar results were found with the difference being that this experiment focused on image recall as opposed to word recall. However although the sample of 18 does show the hypothesis to be correct, is not still not easy to generalise for the target population, however addition of more participants would be more time-consuming. The experiment may have been improved by the addition of more questions on each level of processing which would create more of a distinction between each level of processing results. Ethically the experiment was handled well as participants were willing and fully informed. This investigation can be looked into further with conducting this experiment onto a different age group. This allows comparisons be made between recall of images between a number of different age groups showing memory and age. This experiment can also be conducted with the influence of alcohol, drugs or amnesia which allows comparisons to how these influences affect the memory recall rate. Levels of processing theory is concerned mainly with factors affecting memory trace, the ability to remember events. Remembering not only depends on what is stored in the memory but also process of retrieving the event. This work and results found can be further researched into examining the retrieval process in relation to this. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. A study investigating the effects of categorisation on recall

    A repeated measures design was used with counterbalancing to reduce order effects such as boredom or familiarity. Using an independent measures design may have reduced order effects and demand characteristics as the participants would not have been tested twice, however this would introduce more participant variables.

  2. The aim of this experiment was to test the idea that effort and not ...

    They were then given an unexpected recall test. He found that the group given the hard anagrams to solve recalled more words than the group given the easy anagrams to solve. Thus proving his theory that more effort leads to better recall.

  1. An experiment to investigation the effect of sorting words by their meaning and sorting ...

    Another extraneous variable to be controlled was the amount of time that the participants were given to recall the words. If some of the participants had been given longer to recall the words than others they may recall more of the words simply because they had a longer time to try to remember them.

  2. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    grid (one per participant; see Appendix 4); * Lined paper (one A4 sheet per participant); * Pen; * Stopwatch. Before carrying out the investigation, the word grids were prepared. Six words were chosen from each of the four different semantic categories: sports, animals, countries and colours.

  1. Free essay

    Correlation between age and sleep

    I phoned to my friends and asked each of them if he/she would like to be my participant in a study related with duration of sleep. 2. I presented each of participants the same briefing letter (Appendix1), which instruct participant what is require from him/her to do.

  2. How levels of processing affects memory

    Hyde and Jenkins (1973) found that deeper procesing lead to better recall (more words being remembred) than shallow processing. Making judgements on whether or not leters are upper or lower case is an example of shallow processing in that only superficial infomration about the words is procesed, whereas making judgements

  1. Levels Of Processing

    They concluded that the remembrance of words depends on how deeply they are processed, semantically processed words - thinking about the meaning of the words - leads to them being better remembered. Other research was carried out by Reber et al (1994).

  2. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    granted that the obvious failure of Freudian therapy to significantly improve on spontaneous remission or placebo treatment is the clearest proof we have of the inadequacy of Freudian theory, closely followed by the success of alternative methods of treatment, such as behaviour therapy?.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work