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Investigation into the relationship between an individuals precieved ugliness, harmfullness and an individuals fear of the animal.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction A phobia is a common type of anxiety disorder, a phobia is characterised as a persistent fear, and has to have a rapid anxiety response with the initial stress response occurring immediately. The client must recognise that the fear is irrational and try hard to avoid the stimulus. To be clinically classed as a phobia they must find that this affects their life style. There are three types of phobias, these are, social phobias, agoraphobia, and specific phobias. Social phobias are a fear of social situations due to own self consciousness, and fear of others. Agoraphobia is the fear of open or public places. A specific phobia is the phobia of a specific object, commonly animals, such as arachnophobia which is the fear of spiders. Seligman (1971) introduced his preparedness hypothesis; this proposed that the non-random distribution of fears is caused by an evolutionary predisposition. This evolutionary predisposition means that the modern man has a tendency to react fearfully to stimuli which would have been a threat to prehistoric man (such as snakes, spiders, high places etc); this is not an innate reaction but facilitates acquiring such fears through classical conditioning. Seligman states that it can be merely a mild unconditioned stimulus which can activate this tendency to fear the stimuli of prehistoric mans fears, and that this can result in a highly resistant conditioned fear. The preparedness hypothesis explains why some highly aversive experiences do not result in phobias. Ohman et al developed a more detailed version of Seligmand preparedness hypothesis, they suggested that there are two evolutionary based fear systems; these are predator defence system and the social submissiveness system. The predator defence system mobilises fear of a stimulus such as spiders or snakes, and is needed as soon as a child can move away from their parents in order to survive, as if they have no fear they could be in danger, for example going towards a snake which could be poisonous and hurt or kill them. ...read more.

Middle

A second possible explanation for polar bear to appear as an anomaly on fear and ugliness graph References- 'Phobias - a handbook of theory, research and treatment' Graham C.L. Davey, John Wiley & sons References for studies used from above book - * Seligman, M.E.P. (1971), phobias and preparedness, Behaviour therapy * Ohman.A. (1986). Face the beast and fear the face: animal and social fears as prototypes for evolutionary analyses of emotion psychophysiology. Appendix Harmful Animal Mean Rank 1 Butterfly 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 5 5 1 2 1.8 4.5 2 Cat 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 5 1 4 1.95 8 3 Cricket 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 4 1 2 1 2 5 2 4 1.9 6.5 4 Crow 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 2 3 5 4 4 1 2 3 4 3 2.7 18 5 Dog 1 1 2 3 1 1 4 5 5 2 1 2 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 5 2.55 14.5 6 Dolphin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 3 4 4 2 2 4 5 2 4 2.33 13 7 Elephant 1 2 4 4 2 2 3 3 5 3 2 4 1 4 2 3 5 4 4 3 3.05 20.5 8 Hamster 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 2 1.55 1 9 Horse 1 3 3 1 2 1 2 5 5 1 2 3 1 4 4 2 5 1 1 4 2.55 14.5 10 King Cobra 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 4.6 25 11 Ladybird 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 5 ...read more.

Conclusion

2 2 3 2 5 5 3 3 2 5 5 4 4 3.55 21.5 17 Parrot 2 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 3 3 4 2 1 2 2 4 1 2 2 9.5 18 Penguin 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1.25 1 19 Pig 1 2 3 1 5 2 3 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 2.7 15 20 Polar Bear 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1.65 4 21 Rabbit 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 5 1 4 4 5 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2.15 12 22 Rat 5 4 2 5 4 2 4 5 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 5 4 3 3.55 21.5 23 Shark 4 4 4 3 5 5 4 1 4 5 4 4 4 2 3 3 5 2 2 3.6 23 24 Snail 5 4 5 3 5 5 5 3 1 4 3 1 5 3 3 4 1 2 3 3.5 20 25 Spider 5 5 5 3 5 5 2 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 5 5 3 4.1 25 Mean ugly harm Fear Animal Mean Mean Mean Butterfly 1.5 1.8 1.65 Cat 1.4 1.95 1.4 Cricket 3.35 1.9 2.55 Crow 3.8 2.7 2.1 Dog 2 2.55 1.95 Dolphin 1.85 2.33 1.6 Elephant 2 3.05 1.9 Hamster 1.95 1.55 1.8 Horse 2 2.55 2.3 King Cobra 3.55 4.6 3.6 Ladybird 2.25 2.15 1.6 May Bug 3.35 2.05 2.6 Monkey 2.85 2.7 2.45 Moose 2.45 2.6 2.2 Mouse 1.85 2 1.5 Octopus 3.55 3.3 2.85 Parrot 2 1.9 1.9 Penguin 1.25 1.8 1.25 Pig 2.7 1.7 1.6 Polar Bear 1.65 3.55 2.75 Rabbit 2.15 1.75 1.35 Rat 3.55 3.05 3.2 Shark 3.6 4.4 4.05 Snail 3.5 2 2.3 Spider 4.1 2.7 3.15 ...read more.

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