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Is Three A Crowd?

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Is Three a Crowd? Abstract This is a study of the effects that crowding has on personal space. Personal space refers to "an area around a persons body they need to keep free of other people in order to remain comfortable". The problem being studied is that when two people are walking towards a person they feel more intimidated than when one person walks up to you and therefore will say stop sooner than the other condition. This experiment aimed to determine which condition; whether one person or two people are walking up to the participant, this will cause the participant to feel more uncomfortable. A within-participant experimental design was used for60 university students, using an opportunity sample. The participants will be asked to say stop when the researcher/researchers are approaching them, therefore will measure how uncomfortable the participant feels. The researcher wil be situated 6 meters away from the participant, making no facial expression and no eye contact. The space between the experimenter and the participant is measured. The results suggest that the participants in condition two; in which two researchers approach the participant will say stop sooner than in condition one; in which one researcher approaches the participant, they will say stop later. ...read more.


People feel uncomfortable when they are approached t a distance they feel is too close especially under high-density places, where there is an increase in the number of individuals. The experimental hypothesis is one tailed which is that participants wil say stop later if only one persona is invading because crowding causes distress. The null hypothesis is that there will be no difference whether one or two researchers are invading an individuals personal space. Method Design A within-particpant experimental design was used to explore how uncomfortable an individual feels when approached by one or two people, this is measured when the individual says 'stop'.The independent variable (IV) is whether theres one person walking towards the particpant orr two people walking towards themselves, wich were randomly assigned. The order of the two conditions was counterbalances so that half of the particpants start with one condition and vice versa, counterbalancing the order in which they start with. A table with odd and even numbers was used to randomly select the particpant with the condiitn. The even numbers start with condiiton one where one person walks towards the individual, and the odd numbers start with condiiton two where two people walk towards the participant. ...read more.


However there are many other factors that affect a persons personal space it depends on the age of the individual, the sex, race, amount of indiviuals walking up to a person, and the appearance. However different people have different inmterpretations of what uncomfortable is for them, therefore cannot be certain on when they feel uncomfortable and say 'stop', therefore cannot measure it properly. These differences of interpretations can lead to a misunderstanding amongst the researchers from different cultures, the environment also affects one's perception on what uncomfortable is for them. Some people might feel uncomfortable with one experimenter walking up to them than two. To conclude from this, different things could be changed in doing this experiment again, a different location could be used. If this experiemnt were to be repeated, there are a few things that should be changed. For example, choosing a different location; this could have ben approached by prior research to obtain knowledge of whn places are most/least populated. The conclusion of this experiment was consistent with past reasearch. Although this experiment ended with a insignificant T-test, the information gathered from the results can help future research on the effects of crowding on personal space. ...read more.

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