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Level 2 Counselling skills. Theories -CBT, Psychodynamic and Person Centred.

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UNIT 3 ? ASSESSMENT 6 ? RESEARCH PROJECT CHARMIAN BELLINGHAM PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY Freud is one of the most influential psychologists ever. His theories radically altered the way that people understand the mind and behaviour, and the therapy he developed for psychological problems was the first to be based on the idea that you could help people just by talking. He was the founder of psychoanalysis and one of the best-known figures in psychology. If Freud represents your layperson's idea of psychology, then you probably have an image of a patient lying on a couch talking about their deepest and darkest secrets. Psychodynamic psychology ignores the trappings of science and instead focuses on trying to get 'inside the head' of individuals in order to make sense of their relationships, experiences and how they see the world. The psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality. Freud believed that we are aware of very little that goes on in our unconscious minds. Most of our thoughts, feelings and many of our memories are locked away in the unconscious. We don?t know they are there, but they have a huge impact on what we say and do. In other words, any of our actions may have hidden purposes and meanings. The term - psyche is often compared with ?personality? but really is closer in spirit to ?soul?. Freud believed that the psyche contained several parts that are continually at war with each other. The conflict that arises between the id, ego and superego is what drives our behaviour. Assumption 1 - Behaviour is influenced by the three parts of the mind. Freud believed that the adult personality is structured into three parts that develop at different stages in our lives. ? Id - This is the impulsive (and unconscious) ...read more.


Rogers said counsellors could create this safe setting with clients and therefore help to bring about change. Much of his work was in understanding and defining the disciplines and conditions to be followed by counsellors so that they can create a safe therapeutic relationship with people who came to see them. He describes the "core conditions" that are needed by a counsellor in order to bring about therapeutic change. The main three are: 1. Empathy - Rogers said that if this condition is in place the counsellor can have an accurate, empathic understanding of the client?s awareness of his own experience. He stressed the importance of the counsellor showing this understanding to the client. 1. Unconditional Positive Regard - This means that the counsellor is accepting and absolutely non-judgemental of the client. The counsellor accepts all the parts of the client. It is completely unconditional in that there is no element of ?I only like you if you are like this or do that?. 2. Congruence - means that the counsellor is authentic and genuine. The counsellor does not present an aloof professional facade, but is present and transparent to the client. There is no air of authority or hidden knowledge, and the client does not have to speculate about what the counsellor is ?really like?. As a result, person-centred theory takes these core conditions as both necessary and sufficient for therapeutic movement to occur ? i.e., that if these core conditions are provided, then the client will experience therapeutic change. The person-centred approach takes clients as their own best authorities. The focus of person-centred therapy is always on the client?s own feelings and thoughts, not on those of the therapist ? and certainly not on diagnosis or categorization. The person-centred therapist makes every attempt to foster an environment in which clients can encounter themselves and become more intimate with their own thoughts, feelings and meanings. ...read more.


The therapist helps us identify our irrational beliefs by arguing with us, putting forward logical reasons showing us how to change. 5. Clients can unlearn these irrational ways of thinking and learn rational beliefs which will lead to pleasant feelings and help them achieve a goal of fulfilment. 6. A cognitive/behavioural approach might look at the individual?s development of irrational beliefs or early conditioning which directly affect an individual?s emotional response. Each approach has its own language and framework for describing ?change? within the therapeutic relationship and how this can be facilitated. Integrating theory into practice is a lifelong process of change and development as counsellors develop their own unique style and understanding of their work. Knowledge of basic counselling skills and the ability to apply them is of proven value to people from many personal and employment related walks of life. Large organisations such as local authorities, health authorities and voluntary support organisations use counselling skills to underpin their worker development programmes and training courses. Counselling and communication skills are used every day to build such relationships in order for the work to happen. Health professionals can use counselling skills to modify how they give information according to individual needs by paying attention to the patient's reactions. This approach allows patients' reactions to be explored, helping to achieve the best outcome for them by reinforcing their self-worth and helping to retain some control of their situation. It is also appropriate for use in encouraging user involvement in care delivery. Therefore, no matter in which counselling field a person works, one must be aware of the psychological theories since successful practice is impossible without theory. If a counsellor doesn?t know why one is applying certain practical methods, one cannot be sure that he or she is applying them effectively and correctly. Counselling practice involves constant working and communicating with people. So, in order to be able to help others, a counsellor should know the psychological theories that support practical methods to be applied. ...read more.

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