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Lifespan development - stages and theories.

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Introduction

´╗┐Lifespan Development Meera Polintan Early Childhood starts from birth. It is the time when infants form it?s first ever attachment to their primary carer. Harlow challenged Freud?s ?cupboard love theory? by conducting an experiment called ?Harlow?s Monkeys?. Newborn monkeys were separated from their mothers and were isolated in individual cages. They were also provided baby blankets and 2 surrogate mothers; a wired monkey with a baby bottle attached and another surrogate mother with cuddly terry cloth but no bottle attached. Harlow found that the baby monkeys were attached to the cuddly mother despite the fact that it doesn?t provide food. He also said that the baby blankets gave security to the monkeys so that they can examine their environment. Harlow then concluded that monkeys have an instinct to seek comfort as much as their need for food or nourishment. Schaffer backed up this theory by saying that infants not only need feeding but also stimulation and responsiveness from their primary carer. A lot of people have criticized Harlow?s experiment. It made a negative impact and said to be ?unnecessarily cruel and unethical?[1]. Based on this theory, monkeys are the only mammals closest to humans, but people will never know if the outcome would be the same if the experiment was conducted on humans. The result might or might not validate this theory. However, one psychologist who was greatly influenced by Harlow?s experiment was John Bowlby. Bowlby made an investigation as to whether maternal deprivation affects the behavior of children and if the effects last through its life development. ...read more.

Middle

[5] Erikson stated that intimacy is impossible if one person have not established identity, and that it is impossible to love someone if an individual does not even know it?s own identity and that if adults fail to form intimacy with other individuals, intimacy will turn into isolation. Failure to establish intimacy is also failing to establish generativity that can cause people to be occupied by their needs and treat themselves as their own child. Erikson called this stagnation. Erikson therefore concluded that in order to be successful and happy in adulthood, one must be able to establish a strong and solid identity in adolescence. Psychologists have evaluated Erikson?s theory as inaccurate because a lot has changed since it has been created; Individuals tend to engage in co-habiting relationships now unlike before. Gilligan also pointed out that psychological changes for women are different but Erikson?s theory was meant to be universal. Contrary to Erikson?s Life stages, Levinson believed that adulthood go through its individual stages and called it ?Seasons of a man?s life?. Levinson collected data shortly after the great depression ended from men who are at the adulthood phase. Levinson stated that adulthood is divided into two concepts: The stable and the transitional period. Levinson then said that adolescents leave adolescence to make preliminary choices for adulthood and then establish relationships, lifestyle and occupation choices. Levinson believes that there is a transition at age 30 and it can be moderate or severe. Levinson then stated that settling down happens when adults reach their mid 30?s and after establishing a family, adults then goes into midlife transition that eventually prepares adult for entering middle adulthood. ...read more.

Conclusion

495 [2] Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 32: Developmental Psychology Pg. 498 [3] Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 37: Developmental Psychology Pg. 588 [4] Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 37: Developmental Psychology Pg. 582 [5] Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 38: Developmental Psychology Pg. 592 Harry Harlow?s Theory ? Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 32: Developmental Psychology Pg. 495 Bowlby?s Maternal Deprivation Theory ? Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 32: Developmental Psychology Pgs. 501-502 Mary Ainsworth?s Strange Situation - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 32: Developmental Psychology Pg. 498 Coleman?s Focal Theory - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 37: Developmental Psychology Pgs. 588-589 G Stanley Hall?s Storm and Stress Theory - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 37: Developmental Psychology Pg. 582 Erikson?s theory: Identity Crisis: Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 37: Developmental Psychology Pgs. 583-584 Erikson?s theory: Intimacy or Isolation, Generativity or Stagnation - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 38: Developmental Psychology Pgs. 592-594 Levinson?s ?Season?s of a man?s life? - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 38: Developmental Psychology Pgs. 594-596 Hopson and Adam?s model - http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=398080&section=1 Kastenbaum?s ?The age of me? - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 39: Developmental Psychology Pgs. 610-611 Cummings and Henry?s Social Disengagement Theory - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 39: Developmental Psychology Pg. 614 Havighurst and Maddox?s Re-engagement Theory - Gross Psychology by Richard Gross 6th Edition (2010), Chapter 39: Developmental Psychology Pg. ...read more.

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