• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Major depression is the most common chronic condition facing the primary care physician today.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PSYCHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT. Depression. Introduction. Major depression is the most common chronic condition facing the primary care physician today. Of all patients visiting their doctor, 5-9% suffer from this disorder. The prevalence of major depression has increased since the 1950s in all age groups and psychiatrists have for many years debated whether this condition is caused by biological or behavioural factors. The debate has been between the use of drugs or therapies to combat this disorder. This debate has been misguided in so far as many diseases have both a biological and behavioural cause, including major depression. Paul A Kettl, MD Major depression, the forgotten illness. The characteristic features of depression are feeling low, lethargy, and negative thought processes; sleep disorders and loss of appetite. Depression is more intense and sustained than ordinary sadness and involves feelings of 'worthlessness, guilt and pessimism. 'Unipolar depression' can occur at any age and may appear gradually or suddenly. In Britain around fifty percent of adults between eighteen and seventy-four will experience serious depression. The number of people seeking help from their GPs for depression was nine million in 1998, (Bps 1999). ...read more.

Middle

(1978). According to Abramson et al, people who look at failure as their fault with no way up so to speak are more likely to become depressed. The negative attribution to their plight reinforces their feelings of helplessness. This attributional style derives from learned histories such as family and school. According to questionnaires that looked at the way people interpret adversities in their life, to some degree, were able to predict the future susceptibility to depression of those who took part, Kinderman & Bentall, (1997). However once a depressive episode ends the cognititions of helplessness ends also. Gotlib & Colby, (1995), suggest that an attitude of helplessness could be a symptom rather than a cause for depression, they found that there is no difference between people who where formerly depressed and people who have never been depressed, when it came to viewing negative events with a helpless resignation. Overall the capacity of people to experience sadness & joy is probably related to the punishment reward system within the realm of reproductive success. Unipolar and bipolar disorders are the extremes of this system. There are a number of reasons to associate the capacity for sadness as an adaptive trait elicited by certain cues, specifically by a loss of reproductive resources, such as money, a mate, health or relatives. ...read more.

Conclusion

This treatment has been portrayed in films as cruel, barbaric, inhumane and almost torture like in the way it has been used in the care of people with depression. However it still remains one of the most effective treatments for major depression. Simply it works by disrupting the long-term memory through he introduction of short bursts of electricity to the person's brain, creating in effect a 'seizure' or resetting the brain to its factory setting. In conclusion, the research for this essay suggests that there is a bright future for people who suffer this debilitating disorder. Innovation in humanistic therapies and the use of effective drugs are beginning to win the battle in helping people with this disorder. The world and the problems facing us all in the future are serious enough to make anyone depressed at some time or other. It will continue to effect people of all ages and cultures until such time as we can resolve some of the more destructive elements in our make up as human beings. Paul A Kettl, MD. Major depression, the forgotten illness Psychology, A new introduction. Hodder and Stroughton, (2000). Study of Recurrent Unipolar Depression.htm The American Journal of Psychiatry. Embargo: January 1, 2003 (Toronto): http://www.medscape.com/. Is a glass half full or half empty? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. disruption of attachment

    This therefore supports the ideas of subsequent emotional care leads to good social (In this case academic) development. There is however a pressing ethical issue with this study as the control group were 'left behind' and not given the opportunity to improve, as well as potentially breaking up attachments made between groups within the orphanage.

  2. Critically Discuss the Causes of one Psychological Disorder Depression is one of the most ...

    must also be other factors to take into consideration, which triggered theorists to conduct studies to try and determine what other factors could be associated with the causes of depression. McGuffin et al (1996) conducted a study to see if it was possible that genetics was a component for depression.

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    physical symptoms such as shaking hands or voice, sweating, and rapid heartbeat. * Antidepressants - Antidepressants can be helpful when social phobia is severe and debilitating. * Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines are fast-acting anti-anxiety medications. However, they are sedating and addictive, so they are usually prescribed only when other medications for social phobia have not worked.

  2. Insomnia its affects and its treatments.

    Usually people use treatment for this type of insomnia. Pain is also a reason for insomnia, disorders such as arthritis, back injury, headache and many other forms of discomfort may also upset sleep. Physical problems such as trouble with breathing or over active leg muscles account for over half of all cases in chronic insomnia.

  1. Can a case be made for the use of homeopathy in the treatment of ...

    The problems of diagnosis are therefore widespread and clearly hinder effective treatment. People are suffering unnecessarily with the present state of affairs. As an alternative therapy, treatment with homeopathy can offer hope of preventing symptoms from remaining "unrecognized", as they often are in conventional treatment.

  2. Stress in the Workplace : Why Is it Important to Deal with It?

    Emotional stress ie mood swings, sensitivity to criticism; psychological stress - negative attitudes, feelings of worthlessness and behavioural indicators of stress - isolation - denial - avoiding responsibilities - avoiding being close to others - lack of libido. 8 Take care of yourself Exercise daily - walk the dog -

  1. Unit 1 psychology revsion notes (memory, attachment, research methods)

    develop language after 11\12yrs Quality of care after ? best placed in a supporting environment ? form attachments Follow on experiences later on in life ? Quinton/rutter ? two groups of women, 1\2 were in care. Care group likely to have breakdowns, criminal records and difficulties parenting their children Deprivation

  2. Discuss Biological Therapies for Depression.

    Another strength of antidepressants is the fact that they are easily accessible and cheap. This means that nearly every depressed person would be able to get hold of them and use them if they need to. This is a good thing because for example, if someone is suffering from severe

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work