• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Memory - Outline findings and/or conclusions of research into the duration for short term memory

Extracts from this document...


PSYCHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT MEMORY 1. Outline findings and/or conclusions of research into the duration for short term memory. This experiment was demonstrated by Peterson and Peterson (1959). Participants of the experiment were shown a trigram (BGM or VRW). Then the participants were asked toto count backwards in threes to stop them thinking about the letters. After intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 seconds, participants were asked to recall the trigram. They found that participants were able to recall 80 per cent of the trigrams after 3 second intervals. Further on, fewer trigrams were recalled as the time interval lengthened. After 18 seconds, fewer than 10 per cent of the trigrams were recalled correctly. Peterson and Peterson concluded that items disappear from Short term memory (STM) only when rehearsal is prevented. Therefore Decay is the mechanism for forgetting in Short Term Memory. 2. Outline one explanation of Forgetting In LTM and give one criticism of this explanation. ...read more.


This would mean that the experimental group does less well. There is strong evidence for both proactive and retroactive interference when the same stimulus terms are used. However little pro and retroactive interference is found when the stimulus words in both the lists are different. 3. Outline and Evaluate one alternative Model to the Multi-Store Model of Memory. Craik and Lockhart (1972) put forward an alternative model to the multi-store called Levels Of Processing Theory. They proposed that it is the level of processing that determines whether something is stored in long term memory. If you learn a piece of information a lot our 'deeply', then it is more likely to be stored. If you don't rehearse it very well then it is likely that it won't be stored in LTM. There are many forms of processing such as Rehearsal, Depth of Analysis, Elaboration, Organisation and Distinctiveness. Craik and Lockhart suggested that Depth is a crucial concept for this theory. ...read more.


At this point the participants were given an unexpected recall test. Mandler found that recall was poorest for those who had decided to use only 2 categories, and best for those who used 7. Distinctiveness is also another form of processing. Memory traces that are distinctive or unique in some way will be more memorable than memory traces closely resembling others. Eysenck (1979) suggested that if a memory trace is made distinct from other similar ones, it will not get confused with them. The depth of processing theory offered a model that could be applied to improve memory, by elaborating or making it more distinct. This will help make it more memorable. However, there are criticisms. Craik and Tulving (1975) assumed that semantic processing involved greater depth than Phonomic processing, but there is no real evidence for this assumption only the fact that semantic processing resulted in more memorability. Another criticism is that it describes rather than explains. Craik and Lockhart argued that deep processing leads to better long term memory than shallow processing. But they fail to account on why deep processing is so effective. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    was much greater than his forgetting of visual stimuli. In conclusion they suggest that there is not just one short-term memory, but a number of different stores, each represented in different parts of the brain. They also found out that KF's problems lied with what they called the "auditory-verbal short-term store".


    The obtained result showed that after 18seconds the idea that without rehearsal, the duration of the short-term memory is shorter, therefore causing us to forget. Alan Baddeley (1966) investigated short-term memory. In his study, he investigated the coding of words.

  1. An investigation into the Affect of Organisation on memory.

    style of a laboratory experiment because I feel it is the most suitable method. It allows the precise control of variables and enables it to be replicated easily. It is the aim of this study to find out which variables are responsible for affecting memory.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    This would also hopefully avoid unreliable results. Different target audiences could also be tested at the same time for example 15-16 year olds; this would help us see whether age is a variable in such experiments or whether it simply has no affect.

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    show that the observed value of U was 14.5. The critical value of U was 27 (N1 = 10, N2 = 10 for a one-tailed test at P<0.05). This is a directional hypothesis because earlier research by McGeoch and McDonald (1931) suggested that more retroactive interference would occur in the synonyms condition and evidence can be found in the findings of their research.

  2. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    * Computer and Projector Procedure * A psychology classroom was booked on two consecutive days for the same time * All equipment was set prior to the study. o Computer and Projector o Pen and Paper on every desk for the participants o Sign on Door "Experiment in Progress, Do

  1. 'Organisation in Memory'.

    Bousfield (1953) also provided support for the HNM. He gave participants a list of sixty words. These words had all been derived form four categories, but were shown to the participants randomly. He found that in a recall test, the participants tended to group the words together into categories.

  2. An investigation to discover the effects of retroactive interference on memory recall.

    Design The design of this experiment will be kept ethical and fair throughout; therefore all variable will have to be kept constant. This means that the participants will be split into groups at random as this will prevent demand characteristics such as practice and the order in which the participants take part in the experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work