• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Memory's Impact

Extracts from this document...


The Impact Emotion Has On Memory Candidate name: Candidate number: Centre number: Table of contents Abstract Page 3 Introduction Page 4 Aims and Hypotheses Page 6 Method Page 7 Results Page 10 Discussion Page 12 Conclusion Page 15 References and Bibliography Page 16 Appendix Page 17 Method Design A laboratory experiment was used to manipulate the independent variable (which was either the emotional or neutral words that the participants have to recall) to observe the effect on the dependent variable (which was the number of emotional and neutral words participants recalled), under controlled conditions. There were two conditions in the experiment. Condition A involved participants being presented with only emotional words and recalling them. Condition B involved participants being presented with only neutral words and recalling them. The design involved was an independent groups design where there were two groups of participants one for each condition. The study contained one recall list sheet and one maths answer sheet, which were used to collect the results of participants. A pilot study was conducted before carrying out the experiment using only 6 participants both males and females. From the pilot study it was found that participants felt that the retention interval for recalling the words was too short. Also participants were more influenced by other participants and sought for cues on how to behave from other participants as all participants took part in the study at the same time and place. ...read more.


* An independent groups design was used. The level of significance selected was p<5%. The results show the value of U for this data is set at 22 which is just below the critical value of 27, this shows that the results are significant. This allows the experimental hypothesis to be accepted. The experimental hypothesis is as follows: There will be a difference between recall of emotional and neutral words. (See appendix for workings). Discussion Discussion of findings The experimental hypothesis stated that there will be a difference between the recall of emotional and neutral words which has been clearly shown in the graph. These results suggest that emotion may have an impact on the memory. As the null hypothesis has been rejected in favour of the experimental hypothesis this means that emotional words (as shown by a mean of 6.15) are generally better remembered than neutral words (as shown also by a mean of 5.1). The Mann-Whitney U test shows that the study was significant even though there was not much of a difference between the results. Moreover more emotional words were remembered by participants than neutral words showing that emotional words did have some impact on the memory of the participants. However individual differences did occur as some participants did have a high recall of neutral words in comparison to participants' recall of emotional words showing that emotion is not always the trigger for memory. Emotion does seem to have caused better recall for the participants highlighting that there may be a link between the emotion and higher recall. ...read more.


It would be interesting to see if genders have any difference at all in the recall that could be conducted. Other further research that could be conducted is to see whether different personality types could be better at recalling emotional words or neutral words. Different personality types may be less likely to be affected by emotional words such as hardiness personality rather than type C personalities that would take the emotional words more into account. This could still however suggest individual differences. Further research could also be to test by comparing pleasant emotional words to unpleasant emotional words are remembered. This could give further support to how the human brain works. Also the difference between younger and older people could be tested to see if the emotional words do affect older people as they may have experienced more of the emotional words in depth than younger people who may take less notice of the emotional words. In addition further research could challenge the idea of changing the emotional and neutral words to fit within certain cultures. Different cultures may find different words more emotional to them. The emotional words can link with the individual's culture to see if this would cause better or worse recall. Conclusion From the study it can be concluded that emotional words have more of an impact on memory than neutral words causing them to be recalled better. The findings support this as it shows that participants in condition A had better recall of the emotional words in comparison to the participants in condition B who were recalling neutral words. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays


    Here they suggested that there was a series of information processing stages one after another. These were the sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory and the processes of attention and rehearsal were responsible for controlling the flow of information between the stages.

  2. In this experiment, the cognitive approach was investigated, focusing on the study of memory ...

    Hypothesis There will be a significant difference between the results of the two conditions. Chunking of letters will improve memory recall of short-term memory: the number of correct letters recalled in the second condition will be greater. Method Method and design This experiment was conducted using the experimental method.

  1. A comparison of the ability of males and females to control their attentional processes

    This is a limitation because there are many different situations where people may have to divert their attention, and these situations all use different combinations of senses and thought processes. The Stroop Test only tested the ability to divert attention from the semantics of a word to the colour of

  2. A Study to Investigate Whether Leading Questions have an Effect on Memory

    The percentage of incorrect answers given when participants were asked the question with the indefinite article (a). The percentage of incorrect answers given when participants were asked the question with the definite article (the). 16.6% 83.3% To find the raw results and how I calculated the percentage from the raw results of the experiment see the Appendix at the back.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    Here 10 more words would be added including gesticulation, eradication and malnourished giving 20 words in the final list. This would help to see whether the same effect of short word recall is the same as that with long

  2. An experiment to investigation the effect of sorting words by their meaning and sorting ...

    Therefore, all participants need to be given the same amount of time to recall the words so they were all given a time limit of 30 seconds. Participants The target population for the experiment was Y9 King Ecgbert School students in Sheffield.

  1. Psychology discussion

    A field experiment can be used so the test can be carried out in a natural setting. The new test can be carried out in school; for example a teacher can carry out an examination on students by testing a group of students to remember a list of abbreviations.

  2. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    For example, one participant (B01, see Appendix 1) said that she remembered the words by associating colours with animals, which does itself suggest a degree of categorisation, but not one in which the categories are clustered in blocks. An example of a method of organisation which did not involve categorisation was shown by participant B08 who commented that she used rhyming strings of words to remember more easily.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work