• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Memory Test

Extracts from this document...


Memory Test Introduction Research Method: Laboratory experiment Design: Repeated measures Aim Is recall of information improved when it is processed at a deep level rather than a shallow level? Background Research Atkinson and Schifrin proposed that memory can be thought of as a process which memory is divided into structural components including short-term memory (STM) which has a limited duration, and long-term memory (LTM) which has an unlimited duration. According to Atkinson and Schifrin's theory, information is passed from short-term to long-term memory through the process of rehearsal or repetition. Craik and Lockhart projected a different way of interpreting the evidence that short-term and long-term memory, are two different stores. They claimed that the idea of rehearsing information did not clarify whether or not the information gets stored in LTM. For information to be stored in LTM then the materials have to be deeply processed; however if the material is processed briefly then it would not be registered in LTM. Craik and Lockhart say that memory is a by-product of the way we process information. According to Craik and Lockhart, the more deeply we process information, the more likely we are to remember it. The three levels of processing they describe are: Level 1 - Structured, or Shallow level Visual - What the word looks like E.g. Is the word uppercase? ...read more.


To keep confidentiality, I need to make sure participants and the data gained from them, is anonymous unless they give their full consent. Also if participants initially agree, and then decide to withdraw that agreement at the end of the study or after they have been debriefed, all data and information about them must be deleted from the research. The participant suffering from distress also needs to be taken into consideration as I need to ensure that those taking part in the research will not be caused distress. Participants The target population I am using for my investigation are 16 to 18 year old students and I am experimenting on a sample of 10 participants. Materials For this investigation I would need the follow materials: ? A quiet room or area ? A table and chairs ? 30 flash cards with the relevant words and questions (Appendix A) ? A copy of the standardised instructions (Appendix B) ? A timer Procedure Standardised Procedures To ensure that all participants have the same experience, I have to ensure that they are all tested: ? In the same place, with the same equipment and materials placed in the same way. ? Under the same conditions, so the level of lighting, noise and heat remains the same for all participants; so the participants won't get distracted ? ...read more.


In my experiment Condition A required shallow processing and Condition B required phonemic processing. I found that there was a higher number of words recalled in Condition B than Condition A. This shows that we are likely to remember more words which require phonemic processing than shallow processing. Evaluation My overall research followed smoothly. The participants understood and responded well to my instructions, and justified my hypothesis. There are a number of critisisms of the levels of processing theory which include it does not explain how the deeper processing results in better memories. Deeper processing takes more effort than shallow processing and it could be this, rather than the depth of processing that makes it more likely people will remember something. The concept of depth is vague and cannot be observed. Therefore, it cannot be measured, Conclusion This experiment was based on Craik and Lockhart's theory on memory. Its aim was see whether recall of information improved when it is processed at a deep level rather than a shallow level? I found out that we are able to remember more information when you recall in deep level processing that shallow processing. As remember words in shallow processing would store the information in the short-term memory father than the long-term memory. This result support the findings Craik and Lockhart's study and concludes that processing information at a deep level would store the information in the long-term memory. ?? ?? ?? ?? Rianne Malcolm 12H ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    short and long-term memory has come from the study of brain damaged patients. Amnesia is when a person has lost a lot of their long-term memory, often due to an accident that has caused brain damage. These people usually have almost normal short-term memory.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Memory Process. This paper will describe a memory test using numbers, letters, and ...

    3 star(s)

    I was able to recall 11 letters consecutively. When I attempted the next level and failed, it dropped back down a level. Consequently, each time I inaccurately recalled the series of letters, I had to drop down one level. As a result, after reaching 11 letters and again failed at 12.


    This will ensure that the investigation still meets the BPS guidelines. This will also protect the participants. Participant confidentiality is assured because information from participants will not be shared with anyone else. Also, participants will be referred to as numbers not name to ensure anonymity.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    Participant's signatures were used as a means of the participants agreeing to all the process involved in the experiment, although participants will be referred to by numbers in the write up. The experimenter will ensure that all information collected from the participants remains confidential and anonymous.

  1. The aim of this experiment was to test the idea that effort and not ...

    The evidence to support this theory was an experiment carried out by Elias & Perfetti in 1973 and then repeated by Craik & Tulving in 1975 on the basis that the way one processes information determines the memory one gets.

  2. Levels Of Processing

    Word list is used to enable participants to recall the words they remember. I tried to pick the words which are relatively common and everyone would know their meaning. I also kept them between 3 and 7 letters long (the average number of items a person can hold in the memory is 5)

  1. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    the randomised condition, and nn is a two-digit number rendering the full ID unique to each participant. The numbers in the following table refer to the order in which the words were recalled, and the numbers in bold show the last word recalled (and thus the total number of words recalled by each participant).

  2. An investigation in to the effects of time on memory.

    stored in the short-term memory and other information undergoes a different encoding process that transfers some memories to the long-term memory. Atkinson & Shiffrin's Multi-Store model (1968) and Baddeley & Hitch's (1974) Working Memory Models both advocate that information is encoded in to a STM store for immediate use and

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work