• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

Memory.This experiment studies the effects that organised and unorganised lists have on the performance of memory recall. Participants were randomly assigned to conduct an experiment using two different methods; words in a random format and in an organis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

MEMORY Abstract 1. This experiment studies the effects that organised and unorganised lists have on the performance of memory recall. Participants were randomly assigned to conduct an experiment using two different methods; words in a random format and in an organised format. 2. There were twenty subjects, split into two groups (10 participants in each). They viewed word lists that were the same, using countries only, but they were structurally different (one organised and one unorganised). The participants were than asked to recall the words from the lists. 3. The participants using the organised list did not do as well as expected and the participants that used the unorganised list did better than expected. Surprisingly, the results of the research showed that there was little difference between the two groups, regardless of the organisation. 4. The research did not support the research previously conducted by Bowers et al (1969) 5. The research showed that a larger participant sample, chosen more randomly over a longer period could give better results. Introduction Human memory is similar to computer memory, enabling us to store information for later use. There are two main types of storage for our memory - short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). This course work will only be covering STM, as this is what we will be investigating in this experiment. ...read more.

Middle

The purpose of this experiment was to test Bower's findings on his own experiment; the group that produced the best results on recall were the organised word list group. The opportunist sampling of participants were used to test memory. The two groups were tested on their level of recall. By testing exactly, both Independent and Dependant Variables, which needed to be under, exact conditions in a quiet room with no distractions. The experiment conducted in this research study is similar to that of Bower et al (1969), but with the exception of the distraction task. This is to see if organization of words will or will not affect recall of information. Bower et al (1969) conducted an experiment to see whether organisation would affect recall in the short-term memory (STM). He gave his subjects either an organised list of words or a randomised list of words. A distraction task was also given, to ensure that his subjects were using their short-term memory. His test of free recall provided results, showing that the subjects recall from the organised list was greater than that of the randomised list. The aim of this experiment is to prove whether information is easier to remember if in an organised or randomised format. Hypothesis (Null) Differences (if any) in the participants remembering more words from the organised list than the participants remembering words from the unorganised list will be due to chance. ...read more.

Conclusion

Only one person withdrew from the experiment after reading the instructions; claiming to having a bad memory. Results The results from the experiment supported the null hypothesis, as the results were unfounded by the experiment researched by Bowers et al (1969). The findings were that both methods used for the two groups proved that there was little difference - as both sets of results proved to be similar. Appendix 6 shows a frequency polygon graph (showing two sets of data); indicating that overall participants with the randomly selected list of words were more consistent as opposed to the group that had the organised words. An autonomous assumption regarding the experiment could relay that the random list appeared much harder to digest, mentally, therefore more concentration went into studying them and that the organised list may have seemed like more words to remember as the lists were more spread out and separated into categories, thus making the experiment seem more overwhelming. Discussion The results from this experiment do not support Bowers et al (1969) experiment, thus supporting the null hypothesis made at the beginning of this experiment. There was little difference between the participants from both groups. Although the random listed group was more successful and scored more consistently, also proving to be higher in showing the mode, median and mean. Sleep deprivation could be a factor in the group that had the organised list, in that three of the participants were night shift workers. Also, one of the organised group participant's claimed to be dyslexic. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Experiment to Test Memory Using Recognition and Free Recall.

    Comments from the subjects, suggests that some syllables were the same or similar to known abbreviations. These could be linked to existing schema and therefore processed more deeply. It was reported by subjects of both conditions that such associations were actively sort after at the time of learning and syllables of this nature were the most easy to remember.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of interference on memory recall

    > The time allocated when recalling the words was the same. > The only interference that occurred was set up by the researcher. > The experiment was carried out before the band rehearsal, to ensure there was no outside noise during the experiment.

  1. Recall in Memory Using Mnemonics

    and in this experiment only 1 list of 10 words was used, the findings were similar to Bower's. Secondly, Luria's experiment (1968) which studied a Russian reporter Sherehevski who was able to recall strings of words up to fifty words in length after hearing them just once.

  2. 'Organisation in Memory'.

    This provided me with ordinal data, which enabled me to carry out the Mann Whitney U statistical test. (See appendix 6) From carrying out this statistical test, the value I got for U' was 0. When put into the table of critical values I found that my experiment was highly significant to the level of P<0.005.

  1. Categorisation in Long-Term Memory

    It was distinctive from the graph that people given categorised words recalled more words than people who received a random list. The results support my hypothesis of better recall from students if words were categorised. The relationship between the independent and dependant variable was if the words were categorised, the higher the recall.

  2. Carry out an experiment on participants to investigate proactive interference on memory recall, using ...

    and the red (top-down processing) due to the expectation that hearts will be red. Inside the study of the mind under the cognitive theory, one of the most studied areas is memory, and the three separate stores, sensory, short term and long term memory.

  1. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    However it could be that rehearsal may actually be a better technique of memorisation, as some psychological research has found this to be correct. Some psychologists who found rehearsal is better technique for recall are Atkinson and Shiffrin, they found that rehearsal was a better technique for memorisation rather then imagery.

  2. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    cutting out brain nerve fibres or burning parts of the nerves that are thought to be involved in the disorder while the patient is conscious. The most common form of psychosurgery is a prefrontal lobotomy. Unfortunately these operations have a nasty tendency to leave the patient vegetablised or ?numb? with a flat personality, shuffling movements etc.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work