• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

More sex, Less Side Effects

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

1999 More sex, Less Side Effects The Centre for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA) has released a study of the sexual content of primetime broadcast television, premium and basic cable, music videos and popular movies for the 1998-1999 viewing season. The study examined 284 TV series episodes (2 from each show), 50 TV movies, 189 MTV music videos, and the 50 top-grossing feature films of 1998. This study is accompanied by two others, "Merchandizing Mayhem", which examines violence in the media, and "The Rude and the Crude", which studies the use of profane language in popular culture. - Researchers identified 5,152 separate scenes featuring sexual dialogue or behaviour, including 1,420 scenes containing images or dialogue of a "hard-core" nature (ie; sexual intercourse, oral sex, incest and other sexually explicit behaviour). - Network shows averaged one scene containing sexual behaviour or discussion for every four minutes of running time during the 1998-99 season. - Premium cable shows averaged about three sexually charged scenes- including one of a "hard core" nature- for every four minutes of programming. "Hard-core" images and dialogue seldom occurred in broadcast (one every 10 minutes) and basic cable (one every 12 minutes) programming. - Of all images depicting sexual intercourse, only 2 per cent had physical consequences such as pregnancy. ...read more.

Middle

Although the infants did not differ on any objective measures, girls were rated as littler, softer, finer featured, and more inattentive than boys. Other studies have revealed that parents treat male and female infants differently.... Fagot (1978) observed that parents of toddlers reacted differently to boys' and girls' behaviors. Parents responded more positively to girls than boys when the toddlers played with dolls, and more critically to girls than boys when the toddlers engaged in large motor activity [Stern et al 1989, page 502,]. Expecting different behavior from boys and girls can be a self-fulfilling prophecy: If one sort of behavior is expected and encouraged, the child will be more likely to continue it. Children also have been shown to have formed sexual stereotypes as early as at two years old [Weinraub et al 1983, page 33]. For example, Preschool children also have a good grasp of adult-validated sex-stereotyped beliefs about children's behavior. When asked in an interview-like situation which of two paper dolls --- `Michael' or `Lisa' --- would like to do certain activities in nursery school, end up in certain future roles, and have certain character traits, children to years old showed an impressive depth of knowledge (Kuhn, Nash, & Brucken, 1978). ...read more.

Conclusion

Most children answered this question. Although the majority thought computers were for both genders, the boys were not as sure of this as were the girls (71% of the girls and 57% of the boys). Of the minority, more children thought computers were for boys only (14% of the boys and 11% of the girls) than thought computers were for girls only (7% of the boys and 4% of the girls) [Kiesler et al 1985, page 456,]. The point of this section can be illustrated by the following incident: A group of parents arranged a tour of a hospital for a group of twenty children: ten boys and ten girls. At the end of the tour, hospital officials presented each child with a cap: doctors' caps for the boys, nurses' caps for the girls. The parents, outraged at this sexism, went to see the hospital administration. They were promised that in the future, this would be corrected. The next year, a similar tour was arranged, and at the end, the parents came by to pick up their children. What did they find, but the exact same thing --- all the boys had on doctors' hats, all the girls had on nurses' hats! Steaming, they stormed up to the director's office and demanded an explanation. The director gently told them, `But it was totally different this year: We offered them all whichever hat they wanted'" [Hofstadter 1986, page 156,]. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. I have decided to do my portfolio on Beaufort Park School, for several reasons. ...

    * The parents have also influenced the school to hold wine and cheese evenings. This is a social gathering of all the teachers and parents are invited during the evening to come along. This has been done so that the parents feel more comfortable with the school, and so they can get to know the teachers better.

  2. DISCUSS THE EFFECTS OF GENDER ROLES AND GENDER IDENTITY ON BEHAVIOUR

    Sigmund Freud claims that moral feelings are learned from our parents through identification. It makes sense that children should learn appropriate behaviour from the important people around them. Freud emphasises emotional development with his theories, his psychoanalytic theory was designed to account for gender development.

  1. What is it that you like about films?

    The music is very 'dreamy' and also very romantic. It creates a sensational atmosphere. The music is also pleasant, calm and delightful. It symbolises the mood; it also makes the audience feel cheerful. This displays that Ginger is a good character. However, even though Ginger sometimes does bad things e.g.

  2. The idea for my coursework is the potential changing aspirations of teenage girls in ...

    my aims are and ask whether the respondent wants to take part in the research instead of telling them that they must because they have been picked on account of sampling. * Inform the respondent that they have the right to retract from the research at any time and have the right to decline any question asked.

  1. Investigate whether a child would imitate the cooking behaviour of the same sex parent ...

    This idea of identification is supported by Lamb (1979) who put forward the theory that fathers pay more attention to their sons and withdraw from their daughters. This results in boys channelling their attentions to their father and girls to their mother leading to a greater identification with the same sex parent.

  2. Is Popular culture an Influence on Violent Behaviour?

    These are just bones tossed to mollify an angry public and will have no lasting impact once the Littleton nightmare fades to black. Thus, we can see Hollywood's response to the effects of violent behaviour spurned from popular culture and its ability to mollycoddle the public, luring themselves away from blame.

  1. Do playgroups encourage gender stereotypes?

    Limitation: Sometimes covert observations are seen as unethical and deceiving, but as I am only dealing with children, I don't think they'd notice or mind what I was doing. Sociological Context I have looked at a number of different secondary sources to help in my investigation, as it will be

  2. Psychology Controversy essay, Nature Vs Nurture PY4

    h o d a   h a s   s h o w n   t h a t   A s h a n t i   p e o p l e   w h o   g i v e   t h e i r  

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work