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Mother infant attachment is part of an instinctual-emotional system of central important to all primates.

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Introduction

ATTACHMENT * Mother infant attachment is part of an instinctual-emotional system of central important to all primates * Young monkeys and apes are strongly motivated to cling to their mother, to orient to them, and...follow and remain close. * The mother is motivated to hold, groom, and make sure her infant remains close. * Periods of stress intensifies the need to maintain closeness * Once the infant is securely attached to the mothering figure, separation arouses anxiety, and, if prolonged, grief and depression. * Human infants and their mothers show a closely related pattern. * Holding, contact, comfort, and sucking are the only things the human infant understands * Five species specific patterns central to human attachment: sucking, clinging, following with eyes, crying and smiling * The difference between human and nonhuman interaction is how contact is brought about: * Primates can cling at birth * Humans cannot *Human infant must show initiative; depends on communicative crying and smiling * Crying and other signs of distress signal the mother to hold, cuddle, rock, and in other ways to provide stimulations to the infant. * Mothering person becomes associated with stress reduction and the elimination of pain * The consistent association of the mother with: * Reduction of stress * Provision of pleasurable experiences * Plays a role in establishing her as the central attachment figure * Human infants have a readiness to become attached to that figure who provides: * Visual cues associated with the face * Contact comfort * Pleasurable holding * Rocking * Stress reduction * Playful and ...read more.

Middle

? Schemas amplified by this powerful emotion are the prototypes for later interactions involving attachment and loss. The infant derives his initial security from attachment, and disruptions in attachment may be thought of as the prototypes of insecurity. * Anger: Bowlby states, "...it is my belief that there is no experience to which a young child can be subjected more prone to elicit intense and violent hatred for the mother figure than that of separation..." ? The intensity of direct rage, as well as the prevalence of indirect anger such as a refusal to look at, smile, or relate to mother. * The child's anger: ? stems from the frustration of loss ? Is useful in getting needs met, including the need for reunion ? Serves to discourage the mother from abandoning the child on future occasions. Bowlby puts it: "...aids the recovery of the lost object and the maintenance of union with it..." Anger is the earliest interpersonal expressions of this emotion. PLAY, CURIOSITY, AND EXPLORATION IN INFANCY * Sucking is central to feeding * Sucking, mouthing and tasting come to be used in non-nutritive exploration * Exploration of the world expands; ? by six months of age the infant has achieved permanent object schemas ? Progresses from a stage in which he sees the world as fleeting images and acts, to one in which he perceives objects as having and independent existence in time and space. By six months the infant can coordinate these schemas, and from this emerges a new schema which represents "fingers" as more or less permanent things that transcend the immediate actions of touching or being sucked. ...read more.

Conclusion

stimulation and play, feeding; * Elimination of distress, and comforting during periods or pain; * The mother aids the developing sense of trust by providing security for the infant's anxiety as well as a base for exploration. * Encouragement of curiosity and exploration as well as firm limits that protect. A sense of trust refers to a particular set of personal and self schemas. * Mothers and others come to have a particular set of meanings for the infant as do : ? Urges ? Pains ? Fears ? Pleasurable sensations * Predictability, the association of mother with pleasure and elimination of distress, attachment and control all shape schemas in a trusting direction. * Sense of trust is the hoped-for outcome of infancy * Infants who lack consistent mothering figures or * who experience crucial; or repeated separations; * those whose parents treat them sadistically; * or use them in games to play out their own unresolved conflicts; * or those simply incapable of responding to the infant's basic needs, * Will come to view the world, themselves, nd others through schema formed by such experiences * Mothers and others create a sense of trust in their children by the kind of administration which in its quality combines sensitive care....of needs; a firm sense of trustworthiness within the trusted framework of the culture's life style * This forms the basis in the child for a sense of identify which will later combine a sense of being "all right", of being oneself, and of becoming what other people trust one will become. ...read more.

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