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Mothers who smack turn their children into bullies

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Introduction

Mothers who smack turn their children into bullies The article "Mothers who smack turn their children into bullies" originates from the Sunday Express, September 13, 1998 and was written by Dorothy Lepkowska, Education Correspondent. The article has three underlying psychological assumptions. The first assumption is that children who grow up in an aggressive environment are more likely to become aggressive. Prof. Peter Goldsmith (psychologist) expresses "children living in a home atmosphere full of aggression are more likely to turn into bullies". This suggests that it is the aggressive reinforcement of the individuals in the home that affects the child's behaviour, therefore creating a bully. This can be related to Bandura's Social Learning Theory, where he investigated the effect role models had on children's behaviour. His laboratory experiment was called "Bashing Bobo", and concluded that children imitate their behaviour on behaviour they observe from other individuals. He referred to this as "Imitated Aggression". The second underlying psychological assumption suggests that there is a need for good and consistent parenting, with a strong bond between mother and child, for the welfare of that child. This would imply that the quality of the mother's role with her child has a direct implication on her child's development. In the context of this article, if a child does not have a close bond with its mother, then due to disadvantaged development, certain behaviours such as bullying behaviour maybe the consequence. ...read more.

Middle

The psychological evidence relating to the second assumption is Bowlby's theory on attachment, where he believed the child's failure to hold a secure attachment between 2-4 years old (critical period) is related to an inability to develop close personal relationships in adulthood (1973). This suggests a mother/child is essential for the child's development. Schaffer and Emerson (1964) also support the article as they report the need for consistent parenting. In relation, Bowlby's Monotropy Theory claimed, "Attachment before critical period between mother and child is the most effective for development of the child". He claimed Maternal Deprivation caused "affectionless psychopathy" and reported "maternal bond could not be broken...without serious and personal damage to social, emotional and intellectual development". These social problems relate to the bullying, a social problem for the child mixing with other individuals, therefore implying the bullies in the article may have been deprived in early childhood. Bowlby's evidence, "44 Juvenile delinquents" (1946), related maternal deprivation and attachment to social problems found in his juvenile subjects. In relation, these social problems may be related to bullying behaviour of the children. The psychological evidence relating to the third assumption is from Tajfel et al's (1970) "The Minimal Group Studies". These studies investigated the prejudice associated in groups. His first experiment reviled that members favoured members in their own group. His second experiment found that members wanted to maximise the difference between the groups. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also steadily introducing affection by increasing the amount of hugs would help to build a healthy relationship between mother and child, as supported by Harlow (1959). Parents experiencing problems should be made aware for the necessity for a happy home environment, if possible to change their rearing to be more affectionate. As it's difficult to determine such families, advice may only be available through counselling. In relation to the third assumption, I suggest that as intergroup discrimination is easily triggered off, Tajfel, then equality and respect for all should be taught from an early age, building relationship morals with one another. Students would learn everyone holds an equal place in society, therefore reducing the feelings of ingroup/outgroups. Consequently, when in natural competition, for example playing sport, respect would be present, therefore reducing the risk of discrimination between groups. If punishing is necessary, then according to Hoffman (1970), verbal explanations are more effective than physical punishment. Reference: * Introducing Psychological Research, by Philip Banyard and Andrew Grayson (1996) * Key Studies in Psychology (third edition), by Richard Gross (1999) * Psychology for A-Level Cardwell Clark & Meldrum, Liz Clark, Claire Meldrum (2000) * http://www.garysturt.free-online.co.uk/tajfel.htm - Study by Tajfel * http://www.yorku.ca/dept/psych/classics/Bandura/bobo.htm http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html - Study by Bandura * http://www.sensiblepsychology.com/fighting.htm - Article, issues on bullying in schools * http://www.gold.ac.uk/tmr/reports/aim2_firenze1.html - Goldsmiths University, Theory of Mind in Bullying * http://attachment.edu.ar/aggressattach.html - Aggression, attachment and bullying * http://sundayexpress.co.uk - Sunday Express Newspaper, where the article was taken from. (September 13, 1998) ?? ?? ?? ?? Meera Pankhania ...read more.

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