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Multi-Store Memory Model

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Multi-store model of memory The multi store model of memory was suggested and developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. It was proposed to explain how the memory works, the theory proposes that there is more then one stage in memory and all must operate together for memory to properly function. Sensory memory revieves and stores information from the environment we experience through our senses. It is likely there is a sensory store for each sense, but most research has come from vision and sound. The sensory store for sight is called the iconic store, and for auditory experiences it is the echoic store. Research suggests that iconic and echoic operate in similar ways, the main difference between them is time its takes for memory to decay, Iconic memories last a very short amount of time ( about half a second ) before the information is decayed and lost, where as for echoic it can be several seconds before decay occurs. Sensory memories last just long enough to be transferred into the slightly longer lasting short term memory. Attention is important here, we are bombarded with a large amount of sensory information, far more then can actually be handled by our memory system, therefore an attention mechanism selects a small proportion of the information for further processing, information that is not chosen 'decays'. ...read more.


shed, hut, then a word with a similar spelling or sound, i.e. born, because that would be a sound based error, which is an unusual mistake in LTM. Semantic is another word for ' meaning ', and many researchers refer to LTM as semantic memory. Support for this model is vast, Jacobs investigated the serial digit span. He used letters and numbers (apart from W and 7 as they have 2 syllables). Using a metronome an item would be presented every half second. The average digit span was just over nine whereas letters was just over seven. He also found that as we age we improve at being able to remember both letters and digits. Jacobs research backs up Millers ' magic number ' theory also, but it also shows that how much we remember can be influenced by what is actually is we are trying to remember. Further support comes from Bahrick in 1975. He wanted to find out about the duration of long-term memory. So he carried out an experiment and used participants from the US because of their tradition of high school yearbooks having a statement and picture of each person in the year. ...read more.


However, Tulving (1989) distinguishes between Episodic (early childhood episodes and events), Procedural (how to do things), and Semantic (Meanings and tasks), the multi store model does not discuss these types of LTM. Also STM is more complex then previously thought, Baddeley and Hitch propose a working model of memory, which is active and composed of several sub systems, controlled by one central executive. These sub systems may work together or alone depending on nature of the task. Also the MSM takes no account of the nature of information to be recalled and treats all information as the same. Not all information needs rehearsal. Psychologists have studies the nature of flash bulb memories when people have a strong or very detailed memory of a particular event, such memories are associated with events, which are unexpected, seen as important and create strong emotional arrousal. The MSM is an interesting interpretation of how the memory could work, and many of its ideas are backed up by some researches, but many of these supporters could be argued to be too simplistic, and the same could be said of the whole model. The MSM does explain many parts of the day, but it is still just a model and no definites can be proved. ...read more.

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