• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19

'Organisation in Memory'.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Project Brief PB 1; Statement of hypotheses The aim of this piece of research is to investigate if and how organisation of words affects the memory, i.e. the recall of the words. My experimental hypothesis is: 'The organisation of a group of words will increase the recall' My null hypothesis is: 'Organisation of words will not affect the recall.' PB 2; Explanation of direction of hypotheses This research investigation is being based on the work of many psychologists, such as Bower et al. for example. They found that organisation did increase recall. This is what I am expecting with my results so therefore my experimental hypothesis is directional PB 3; Identification of research method/design To test my hypotheses I am going to use an experimental design. PB 4; Evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen research method The main strength of this is that all confounding variables are more easily controlled, such as noise for example. Also, this design can determine a casual link, and also the investigation can be easily replicated. Another strength is that the results will be quantitative, so will be in statistical form. However, as well as strengths there are also weaknesses involved in using this design. First, the conditions that will be undertaken by the participants will not be true to everyday life, therefore the results will not give a true reflection of what occurs in everyday life, and so ecological validity will be significantly decreased. Second, total control over all variables is never possible, for example noise. A third disadvantage of my chosen design is that results are easily affected by many types of bias, experimenter, volunteer and sample bias are examples. Finally, some classes of participants, such as children, react poorly under experimental conditions. PB5; Identification of bias/confounding variables There are many confounding variables that can affect my results when they are collected. One of these that may occur is noise. ...read more.

Middle

(1969) used experimenter organisation in their work. They asked participants to learn a list of words, which were arranged into conceptual hierarchies. For one of the groups, the words were arranged into hierarchies, whereas for the other group they were arranged at random. The findings were pretty clear cut. The group with the list of organised words recalled, on average, 65 per cent of the words, whereas the group that were shown the words at random recalled an average of only 19 per cent of the words. The aim of my investigation will be to discover if organisation affects recall, so I, like Bower et al.'s work, will use experimenter organisation. Therefore, my experiment will follow along very similar lines to Bower et al.'s. However, I will use different hierarchies. This is because I am going to use categories rather than loosely linked hierarchies that Bower used. Also, I am going to replicate Mandler's work in terms of the number of categories used, seven. I am going to use thirty-five words - five in each category. I got this value from Bousfield's work, who used sixty words, but I figured that would take too much time. Finally, I will give my participants one-minute to recall as many words as possible. This is based on Bower's experiment. From the research I have conducted, it is quite clear that the organisation that I will impose will increase the recall, so a directional hypothesis will be used. Therefore, my experimental hypothesis is: 'Organisation of words will increase the number recalled' My null hypothesis is: 'Organisation of words will have no effect on the number recalled' Method Design I used an independent measures experimental design. The independent variable of the experiment was the organisation of words and my dependent variable is the number of words recalled by my participants. Participants I used forty participants, twenty of each gender. ...read more.

Conclusion

A good solution to this problem though would be to not experiment on two participants at once, or I could have asked the participants to try not to say the words out loud, although the latter may not have been very reliable. Finally, a modification I would make in the future would be to use a more representative sample of the whole population, rather than students because students memories may be better than the general population because of high intelligence and to good methods of remembering things due to revision for examinations. Hence, I cannot generalise across the whole population that organisation causes and increase in word recall. F4: Implications and suggestions for further research A first implication of my research is that organisation does increase recall, implying that the more organised an individual is the better that particular individual will be able to remember things. An example of this is, in student terms, the more organised a students notes are presented (such as notes being organised into clear and distinct topics) for revision, then they will perform better in the examination. The other implication is of course the opposite of this, the more disorganised a person is, the less likely they are to remember things. Further research that I could carry out would be to consider the difference that organisation has on the recall of males and females. I could carry out exactly the same experiment design and record the gender of each participant (as I did in this experiment) but actually explore the difference between males and females in terms of the number of words recalled. I addition to this point, I could investigate whether organisation affects the recall of different aged individuals. This leads back to a modification that I would make regarding the use of a representative sample. I could use participants from all different age groups, such as adolescent, adult, OAP and so on. By doing this I could produce evidence to show that organisation has greater effect on recall of younger or older people. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    When later learning disrupts memory for earlier learning, this is known as retroactive interference (which was the kind of interference proposed for short term memory.) Cue dependent forgetting - this is a classic example of forgetting due to lack of accessibility.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Psychology Revision Notes - list of major experiments

    3 star(s)

    All watched a video then asked to estimate speed. Smashed the highest (40.8mph) and contacted the lowest (31.8mph). PPs in second part of experiment then asked a leading question about broken glass. 16/50 of the smashed condition PPs said yes in comparison to 7/50 in the hit condition.

  1. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    To improve the experiment I think that an important thing to do would be to change the instructions to make them more understandable. People who have not done psychology would have trouble understanding what they were meant to do and this could cause problems.

  2. Free essay

    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    within the school, providing a confidential support network to deal with bullying and abuse, by providing a counselling service for the pupils who may have problems at home and by providing security measures so that people cannot enter the school without authorisation etc.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    The beep sound was again used, to make the investigation fair for all the participants. They were given another 60 seconds to recall and record the information in the scoring sheet. After the time was due, they were told to "stop writing" and their scoring sheet was collected.

  2. The aim of the investigation was to repeat the experiment carried out by Bower ...

    Ericsson et al. (1980) were interested in magic number 7 and worked with a participant (along distance runner), who had a normal memory span and average intelligence for an undergraduate. For 20 months he spend three to five hours a week on memory span tasks involving digits.

  1. perception COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY REVISION CATEGORIES

    Look at the diagram on the left. It is called Fraser's Spiral. When you look at it you see a spiral curving downwards like a staircase but in fact everything is not quite as it seems.

  2. An experiment to investigate whether chunking leads to better recall.

    Miller suggests that chunking leads to improved recall. This could be tested by using related and unrelated words lists. The related words could be on any subject like clothes but all the words must all be related. The words in the unrelated list could be anything but must be the same in some respects e.g only one syllable.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work