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Our study is based on the theory of operant conditioning and Banduras social learning theory. Investigation into the relationship between car size and gender.

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Introduction

Evidence of Practice: Learning Approach Abstract Our study is based on the theory of operant conditioning and Bandura's social learning theory. Operant conditioning states that learning happens through association, and we believe that car advertises are trying to make their target population associate buying their car with a desired characteristic/traits/lifestyles e.g. having a lot of female attention. Skinner described the ABC model of operant conditioning, which includes an antecedent, behaviour and a consequence. Bandura for his theory stated that learning can only occur if the four criteria (attention, retention, reproduction and motivation) were met. From looking at YouTube adverts we found that smaller cars had a tendency to have more feminine themes whereas larger cars tended to have more masculine themes. Aim To whether there is a difference between gender and the size of cars they drive. Alternative Hypothesis: Males will have a higher tendency to drive large cars while females will have a higher tendency to drive smaller cars Null Hypothesis: There will be no difference in gender and the size of the car they drive, and any difference will be due to chance. ...read more.

Middle

We increased our ecological validity by carrying out the experiment in different places in Maidstone. Ethics We followed most of the ethical guidelines by: ensuring that no participants were harmed physically or psychology and that the results were anonymous. Participants were not given fully-informed consent and were not debriefed as this would be too time consuming, but if a participant was to ask about our study they would have been told the true aim of the study and having their results omitted if they want to. RESULTS Male Female Small Cars 69 55 Large Cars 51 30 N=205 Degrees of freedom Observed value of chi squared Critical value of square 1 1.34 3.841 We will accept our null hypothesis and reject our alternative hypothesis because our observed value (1.34) of chi-squared is lower than the critical value(3.841) and this means our results aren't significant. Therefore the probability of our results being due to chance equal p<0.5. Evaluation Our results are not generalisable because our participants are only form Maidstone and surroundings areas. People from different areas may have different cars and adverts in different cars might be marketed differently where males may not necessarily drive large cars and females drive small cars. ...read more.

Conclusion

We could carry out the experiment at different types to have more control over extraneous variables in order to try and improve our study. Seeing as our results show that there is no difference between gender and the size of the car, it seems that our study would have applications to real life as it shows that advertisers are wasting their money marketing their cars specifically to male/females. The study was valid in that it was a naturalistic observation of real driving behaviour that was not affected by the observer. The drivers of the cars were either male or female. Also, our study has face validity as there are different opinions on types and the sizes of cars, even though there was a general outline, most of us did get confused about some cars and to those that we could not categorise were not included in the study. Our study would be ethical regardless of the fact that informed consent was not given as if participants were to ask us about the study; they would be informed about the true aim. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page | 1 ...read more.

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