• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Our study is based on the theory of operant conditioning and Banduras social learning theory. Investigation into the relationship between car size and gender.

Extracts from this document...


Evidence of Practice: Learning Approach Abstract Our study is based on the theory of operant conditioning and Bandura's social learning theory. Operant conditioning states that learning happens through association, and we believe that car advertises are trying to make their target population associate buying their car with a desired characteristic/traits/lifestyles e.g. having a lot of female attention. Skinner described the ABC model of operant conditioning, which includes an antecedent, behaviour and a consequence. Bandura for his theory stated that learning can only occur if the four criteria (attention, retention, reproduction and motivation) were met. From looking at YouTube adverts we found that smaller cars had a tendency to have more feminine themes whereas larger cars tended to have more masculine themes. Aim To whether there is a difference between gender and the size of cars they drive. Alternative Hypothesis: Males will have a higher tendency to drive large cars while females will have a higher tendency to drive smaller cars Null Hypothesis: There will be no difference in gender and the size of the car they drive, and any difference will be due to chance. ...read more.


We increased our ecological validity by carrying out the experiment in different places in Maidstone. Ethics We followed most of the ethical guidelines by: ensuring that no participants were harmed physically or psychology and that the results were anonymous. Participants were not given fully-informed consent and were not debriefed as this would be too time consuming, but if a participant was to ask about our study they would have been told the true aim of the study and having their results omitted if they want to. RESULTS Male Female Small Cars 69 55 Large Cars 51 30 N=205 Degrees of freedom Observed value of chi squared Critical value of square 1 1.34 3.841 We will accept our null hypothesis and reject our alternative hypothesis because our observed value (1.34) of chi-squared is lower than the critical value(3.841) and this means our results aren't significant. Therefore the probability of our results being due to chance equal p<0.5. Evaluation Our results are not generalisable because our participants are only form Maidstone and surroundings areas. People from different areas may have different cars and adverts in different cars might be marketed differently where males may not necessarily drive large cars and females drive small cars. ...read more.


We could carry out the experiment at different types to have more control over extraneous variables in order to try and improve our study. Seeing as our results show that there is no difference between gender and the size of the car, it seems that our study would have applications to real life as it shows that advertisers are wasting their money marketing their cars specifically to male/females. The study was valid in that it was a naturalistic observation of real driving behaviour that was not affected by the observer. The drivers of the cars were either male or female. Also, our study has face validity as there are different opinions on types and the sizes of cars, even though there was a general outline, most of us did get confused about some cars and to those that we could not categorise were not included in the study. Our study would be ethical regardless of the fact that informed consent was not given as if participants were to ask us about the study; they would be informed about the true aim. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page | 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Social Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Social Psychology essays

  1. The relationship between group size and conformity

    has suggested that modern experimenters are more sceptical about conformity: "even when Asch's paradigm is apparently faithfully replicated, the experimenter may, unwittingly, convey to the subjects certain expectations as to the outcome of the experiment" Crutchfield (1954) - criticised Asches experiments as time consuming and uneconomical since only one individual could be tested at a time.

  2. The matching hypothesis

    There are many studies that give reasons for this. For example, women usually chose partners that are less attractive than they are. Huston (1973) suggested that people were afraid of being rejected by their prospective partners. They deliberately choose someone who is similar to them, not because they find them most attractive, but because they don't want to be rejected.

  1. Persuasion Theory.

    Both messages highlight simple messages: stop violence; stop pollution. The channel through which a message is to be delivered will also affect the outcome. Channels are the various mediums that can be used. Apart from press, radio and TV, these can include staff newsletters, staff meetings, intercom announcements or closed-circuit TV.

  2. Pro and Anti Social Behaviour

    Before the game started, the referee gave the boys instructions either by a walkie-talkie or a tape recorder. The findings showed that the boys who watched the violent programme and received the instructions by a walkie-talkie were more aggressive during the hockey game than the boys who watched the same programme but received instructions by tape recording.

  1. The Matching Hypothesis

    To overcome this problem a closed questionnaire will be given to the participants which will be filled out in privacy. Gender bias: Some males may feel uncomfortable rating other males' attractiveness and so might either rate them untruthfully or choose not to rate them altogether.

  2. Matching Hypothesis

    Results Couple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Male mean 137 137 58 56 115 169 130 145 114 57 Female mean 107 71 129 84 65 177 162 132 71 162 Overall male mean 111.8 overall female mean 116 The table above shows the mean

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work