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Out Line and Discuss Two Differences Between the Behaviourist and Freudian perspectives.

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Introduction

Out Line and Discuss Two Differences Between the Behaviourist and Freudian perspectives. Nature Versus Nurture. This is an important issue in psychology and as a connection with philosophical rationalist and associatinist ideas going back to ancient Greece. Plato's philosophy takes the rationalists approach whereas Aristotle takes the accosiationalist approach. There have been many extreme analyses in the past, some claiming human abilities and characteristics are genetically determined and inborn, meaning we are born with them and they will emerge as we mature. This is the rationalist's nature viewpoint. Others believe nature is shaped by environmental influences, thus human behaviour is learnt as a result of socialisation, the associationist position Freud's theory suggests he was favourable to the nature side of the debate and suggested the ...read more.

Middle

The id includes two main instincts, Eros that is the life instinct that involves self-preservation and sex which influences the libido energy force. Thanatos is the death instinct whose energies are not as strong as Eros is channelled away from ourselves and into aggression towards others. The id and the super ego are relentlessly fighting each other. The ego tries to resolve these conflicts. If these conflicts are not resolved, we tend to use defence mechanisiums to ease our anxieties. Psychoanalysis can help to resolve these conflicts.xxxxxxxxxxxx The behaviour concept is environmentally deterministic making their beliefs at the nurture end of the scale. Bandvarus investigation and rise of his social learning theory could be seen to have the same principles of classical and operant conditioning. ...read more.

Conclusion

CC behaviour only deals with involuntary behaviour where as operant conditioning deals with voluntary behaviour. Skinner felt that some behaviour could be explained by a person's motive. Therefore behaviour occurs for a reason and the three main behaviour-shaping techniques are: - positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. Many of the behaviourist studies have been on animals so making it hard to generalise to humans and it also cannot explain the speed we pick up language. There are many different perspectives in psychology to explain our behaviour. No one approach has explanatory precedence over the rest. Only by looking at all the different aspects in psychology which sometimes contradict one and another (nature, nurture, debate overlap each other or build upon each other, can we understand and create effective solutions when problems arise. ...read more.

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