• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate an alternative to the Multi-store Model of Memory

Extracts from this document...


Outline and evaluate an alternative to the Multi-store Model of Memory There are many different explanations as to how we remember things. One of the most basic is Atkinson and Shiffrin's multi store model of memory. This indicates that you see things, then they go into your short-term memory, and then if they are processed they will go into your long term memory. One of the most important things that influences whether something goes into your long-term memory is rehearsal. If you rehearse things, for example, say things over and over again or keep it in your mind for a longer period of time, then it is more likely that it will go into your long-term memory. Craik and Lockhart put forward the levels-of-processing theory, which is an alternative to Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multi-store Model of Memory, because they felt that rehearsal wasn't enough to get data from STM into LTM. ...read more.


if you can't remember something, don't just rehearse it, memorise the meaning of it. Also, before this theory was put forward, the view was that memory can be explained in terms of structure and rehearsal, so this theory had a major impact. However, there are some criticisms to this theory. For example, it doesn't explain why deeper processing leads to better memory. It's also hard to establish whether a particular task involves shallow or deep processing. Craik and Tulving conducted a study that they used to support the level-of-processing theory. In this experiment, they used semantic processing as a form of deep processing, and the physical analysis of a stimulus to represent shallower processing. They found that words that were semantically processed and therefore deeply processed were remembered better than the words that were shallowly processed. However, the shallow processing task lacked mundane realism and it is not clear that we ever really process information this way. ...read more.


However, as with Craik and Tulving's study, this lacks mundane realism and ecological validity and therefore cannot be generalised to real life situations. In 1977, Morris, Bransford, and Franks found that stored information is remembered only if it is relevant to the memory test. Their participants were tested with a rhyming recognition test in which they were given some words and were then asked which words rhymed with the words previously presented. None of the words on the list were presented in the last test. Participants remembered words that had been processed in terms of their sound (shallow processing) instead of those that had been processed in terms of their meaning (deep processing). This goes against the levels-of-processing theory because that states that deep processing is always better than shallow processing. The reason that shallow processing was better in this case was shallow processing was much more relevant and related to rhyming because it's to do with sound, rather than meaning. However, this experiment lacks mundane realism, as people wouldn't be doing this in real life. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    This distinction between explicit and implicit memory is clearly important when considering the value of memory research because such research often uses explicit memory. Declarative and procedural knowledge systems Cohen and Squire (1980) argued that long term memory is divided into two memory systems: declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate the Multi-store Model of memory.

    3 star(s)

    This suggests that the flow of information through the system is interactive rather than strictly sequential as Atkinson and Shiffrin suggested.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate one alternative to the multistore model of memory

    3 star(s)

    In other words, it is possible, for example, to rehearse a set of digits in the phonological loop while simultaneously making decisions about the spatial layout of a set of letters in the visuo-spatial scratchpad. The working memory model appears to have a number of advantages over the simplistic formulation of the Atkinson and Shiffrin concept of STI\A.


    all other aspects of the research which might reasonably affect their willingness to participate. It's a fundamental important part of this investigation because participants are giving their consent to the investigation. People can only take part in this experiment if they give their consent.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    (See appendix 3). Withdrawal from the investigation From the start an investigation, participants must be aware of their right to stop participating in the study at any time without giving any reason and with no consequence arising from their decision to quit.

  2. Outline and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory and One Alternative Model

    The main assumption of this model is that there are three separate stores; but most importantly that the short-term memory and long-term memory are entirely separate. Evidence supporting this comes in the form of real life examples, such as H.M., a young man who after undergoing brain surgery (a lobotomy)

  1. Levels Of Processing

    Laboratory experiments do not have very high ecological validity (as field experiments or observations do), the results will have higher validity. If for example I was to conduct a field experiment, noise levels might disrupt the participants from remembering some things faster and true results won't be reflected in their

  2. Memory's Impact

    The participants then heard the second set of standardised instructions that were read out by the investigator. 9) The participants were given the recall sheet that had twenty spaces for each of the words. Participants were asked to recall as many of the words from the PowerPoint presentation in any order.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work