• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate different types of attachment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

?Outline and evaluate different types of attachment? Ainsworths ?strange situation? was developed as a tool to measure types of attachment in infants. The experiment was carried out in a purpose build playroom and children were observed with cameras. It consisted of several situations, standardised for all those who took part. Each condition involved variation of the presence of the mother and/or a stranger, over 3 minute intervals. During these different conditions, the child?s behaviour was monitored, assessing their exploratory behaviour, stranger anxiety, separation protest and reunion behaviour. From her study, Ainsworth identified three types of attachment, these were: secure, insecure- avoidant and insecure-resistant, she believes all infants can fit into these categories. A child with a secure attachment to the mother has high exploratory behaviour; they would explore happily when the mother is present and use her as a safe base. Stranger anxiety would be seen, they would be wary and treat the stranger differently. ...read more.

Middle

Ainsworth suggested differences in attachment types are caused by the sensitivity of the mother, this is known as the ?caregiver sensitivity hypothesis?. According to Ainsworth, a mother who is sensitive to the babies needs and correctly reads their social releasers, moods and feelings is likely to form a secure attachment with her child. An insecure- avoidant attachment would form if he mother is less sensitive and responsive, she may even ignore the baby, and be impatient with them. Finally, she believes that an insecure-resistant attachment would form if the mother is less sensitive and her response to her child is inconsistent, some days she may ignore the baby but the next day she may give the baby a lot of attention. However, Kagan argues that this theory puts too much emphasis on the role of the mother; he suggested attachments formed were due to the babies temperament, this is known as the ?temperament hypothesis?. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, the method used in the ?strange situation? has been a useful tool, giving a great deal of information about a baby?s attachment in little time. It is also easy to replicate and has led to a rapid increase in the amount of research carried out, many finding similar results, suggesting the experiment is a reliable method to study attachment behaviours. However, the research lacks validity because of the unfamiliar surroundings, these may cause demand characteristics as the baby may be intimidated and act differently as a result. However, some say it may still be valid because children experience this on a regular basis when being left with a babysitter or at a nursery. Furthermore, there are ethical issues because the unfamiliar environment, separation from the mother and interaction with the stranger can cause mental distress for the baby. Finally, there is also the concern that not all babies can fit into the categories of attachment created, which is why a fourth one was added in 1986 called ?disorganised attachment? where babies behaviour was inconsistent. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A thoughtful attempt at outlining and evaluating types of attachment with awareness of some of the limitations and benefits.

Marked by teacher Stephanie Porras 08/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What have been the major challenges to Piaget's theory of cognitive development? What aspects ...

    4 star(s)

    Rather their task is to pass on the information they have processed to a 'central executive' in the form of common language of thought. On this basis the executive builds up information in memory, and can generate new hypothesis about the world, make decisions and so on.'

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate two theories of attachment.

    3 star(s)

    secure attachments and react in a hostile, rejecting manner with their environment" (Pickover, 2002). Following on from the idea that the learning theory is reductionist, a further criticism of the theory is based on a study by Harlow, which, despite being extremely unethical, demonstrated that attachment is based on more

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Outline the major theoretical perspectives in psychology and evaluate two of these paridigms.

    3 star(s)

    These are called schemas and are like plans of appropriate action in certain situations. The baby has no concept of anything which is out of sight e.g. it doesn't exist; he referred to this as object permanence. Second is the pre-operational stage (2-7).

  2. Describe Five Different Types of Families

    The spouses' spouse then becomes that spouse's step-children. For example, if Bob married Jane; Jane's children would be Bob's 'step-children' and he their 'step-father'. In contrast Bob's children would be Jane's step-children and she their 'step-mother'.

  1. Outline and evaluate Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis.

    quality of care stay the same, then sufficient attachment styles will remain. Belsky claimed that for children under the age of 1, day care over 20 hours a week increased the risk of insecure attachments. After the age of 1, day care appeared to have no risk on the child's attachment.

  2. The Nature of Groups & Group Behaviour

    group * Member commitment to that task and its achievement * Constructive conflict is brought into the open and dealt with in a environment of trust * Decisions are formulated by consensus of opinion * Ideas are expressed freely and openly * Leadership is shared when appropriate, and the group

  1. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    The is thought that a primary group of people are that of people who know each other and feel that they belong together while as the secondary group is people who only have something in common. A primary group in care tend to share the subsequent features; * They are

  2. Describe and Evaluate Bowlby's and Ainsworth's ideas about parent-child relationships.

    There are eight distinct episodes in the experiment in which the mother and a stranger come and go from the room; each episode lasts for about three minutes (although this period is shortened / lengthened if the infant displays undue distress).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work