• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate different types of attachment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

?Outline and evaluate different types of attachment? Ainsworths ?strange situation? was developed as a tool to measure types of attachment in infants. The experiment was carried out in a purpose build playroom and children were observed with cameras. It consisted of several situations, standardised for all those who took part. Each condition involved variation of the presence of the mother and/or a stranger, over 3 minute intervals. During these different conditions, the child?s behaviour was monitored, assessing their exploratory behaviour, stranger anxiety, separation protest and reunion behaviour. From her study, Ainsworth identified three types of attachment, these were: secure, insecure- avoidant and insecure-resistant, she believes all infants can fit into these categories. A child with a secure attachment to the mother has high exploratory behaviour; they would explore happily when the mother is present and use her as a safe base. Stranger anxiety would be seen, they would be wary and treat the stranger differently. ...read more.

Middle

Ainsworth suggested differences in attachment types are caused by the sensitivity of the mother, this is known as the ?caregiver sensitivity hypothesis?. According to Ainsworth, a mother who is sensitive to the babies needs and correctly reads their social releasers, moods and feelings is likely to form a secure attachment with her child. An insecure- avoidant attachment would form if he mother is less sensitive and responsive, she may even ignore the baby, and be impatient with them. Finally, she believes that an insecure-resistant attachment would form if the mother is less sensitive and her response to her child is inconsistent, some days she may ignore the baby but the next day she may give the baby a lot of attention. However, Kagan argues that this theory puts too much emphasis on the role of the mother; he suggested attachments formed were due to the babies temperament, this is known as the ?temperament hypothesis?. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, the method used in the ?strange situation? has been a useful tool, giving a great deal of information about a baby?s attachment in little time. It is also easy to replicate and has led to a rapid increase in the amount of research carried out, many finding similar results, suggesting the experiment is a reliable method to study attachment behaviours. However, the research lacks validity because of the unfamiliar surroundings, these may cause demand characteristics as the baby may be intimidated and act differently as a result. However, some say it may still be valid because children experience this on a regular basis when being left with a babysitter or at a nursery. Furthermore, there are ethical issues because the unfamiliar environment, separation from the mother and interaction with the stranger can cause mental distress for the baby. Finally, there is also the concern that not all babies can fit into the categories of attachment created, which is why a fourth one was added in 1986 called ?disorganised attachment? where babies behaviour was inconsistent. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A thoughtful attempt at outlining and evaluating types of attachment with awareness of some of the limitations and benefits.

Marked by teacher Stephanie Porras 08/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What have been the major challenges to Piaget's theory of cognitive development? What aspects ...

    4 star(s)

    in one domain is independent of development (or maturation) in other domains. Meaning that children can develop in particular areas such as writing but could be backward in drawing. This though does not necessarily imply a modular system. Piaget's is domain general in that development in particular domains arises from

  2. Describe Five Different Types of Families

    The spouses' spouse then becomes that spouse's step-children. For example, if Bob married Jane; Jane's children would be Bob's 'step-children' and he their 'step-father'. In contrast Bob's children would be Jane's step-children and she their 'step-mother'.

  1. The writer will define what a family is, describe the three different forms of ...

    People also assume that lone parents are "feckless teenagers trying to get council flats" but statistics prove different in Britain only 3% of the 1.75 million lone parents are teenagers while 60% had been married and separated, divorced or bereaved (National Statistics).

  2. Physical, Social and Emotional Development of Children.

    Bowlby argued that infants and parents are innately attuned to each other. Infants display what he called "signalling behaviours" such as smiling, laughing, and clinging to their caregivers. Signalling behaviours attract the caregiver's attention and bring them into close contact, and thus enhance the infant's chances for survival.

  1. Describe and evaluate Piaget's theory of cognitive development

    Also, deferred imitation was found by Meltzoff (1988) to occur several months earlier than Piaget believed. In the pre operational stage, Piaget identified several limitations in the thinking of pre-operational children. However, Paiget underestimated again the cognitive abilities of children at this stage.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    If you are working within a group discussion it is imperative that all the participants of that interaction are made aware of one another and they can see and hear all the other participants.

  1. Factors that Affect Growth and Development.

    their actions and also start being able to plan the best way of meeting the powerful id's demands. In some situations the ego may sometimes make the id wait for its demands to be met e.g. a child may learn that if they snatch a cake from a tray, they

  2. Plan, implement and evaluate at least three activities for children in the foundation stage. ...

    The children will not only experience the communication goals outlined in the plans, but will also develop skills across other areas of learning. The practitioner could incorporate the use of money into the activity, or perhaps encourage the children to work in a group to produce a simple menu on the computer.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work