• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate different types of attachment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

?Outline and evaluate different types of attachment? Ainsworths ?strange situation? was developed as a tool to measure types of attachment in infants. The experiment was carried out in a purpose build playroom and children were observed with cameras. It consisted of several situations, standardised for all those who took part. Each condition involved variation of the presence of the mother and/or a stranger, over 3 minute intervals. During these different conditions, the child?s behaviour was monitored, assessing their exploratory behaviour, stranger anxiety, separation protest and reunion behaviour. From her study, Ainsworth identified three types of attachment, these were: secure, insecure- avoidant and insecure-resistant, she believes all infants can fit into these categories. A child with a secure attachment to the mother has high exploratory behaviour; they would explore happily when the mother is present and use her as a safe base. Stranger anxiety would be seen, they would be wary and treat the stranger differently. ...read more.

Middle

Ainsworth suggested differences in attachment types are caused by the sensitivity of the mother, this is known as the ?caregiver sensitivity hypothesis?. According to Ainsworth, a mother who is sensitive to the babies needs and correctly reads their social releasers, moods and feelings is likely to form a secure attachment with her child. An insecure- avoidant attachment would form if he mother is less sensitive and responsive, she may even ignore the baby, and be impatient with them. Finally, she believes that an insecure-resistant attachment would form if the mother is less sensitive and her response to her child is inconsistent, some days she may ignore the baby but the next day she may give the baby a lot of attention. However, Kagan argues that this theory puts too much emphasis on the role of the mother; he suggested attachments formed were due to the babies temperament, this is known as the ?temperament hypothesis?. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, the method used in the ?strange situation? has been a useful tool, giving a great deal of information about a baby?s attachment in little time. It is also easy to replicate and has led to a rapid increase in the amount of research carried out, many finding similar results, suggesting the experiment is a reliable method to study attachment behaviours. However, the research lacks validity because of the unfamiliar surroundings, these may cause demand characteristics as the baby may be intimidated and act differently as a result. However, some say it may still be valid because children experience this on a regular basis when being left with a babysitter or at a nursery. Furthermore, there are ethical issues because the unfamiliar environment, separation from the mother and interaction with the stranger can cause mental distress for the baby. Finally, there is also the concern that not all babies can fit into the categories of attachment created, which is why a fourth one was added in 1986 called ?disorganised attachment? where babies behaviour was inconsistent. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A thoughtful attempt at outlining and evaluating types of attachment with awareness of some of the limitations and benefits.

Marked by teacher Stephanie Porras 08/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What have been the major challenges to Piaget's theory of cognitive development? What aspects ...

    4 star(s)

    pattern of internal cognition: 'the very mechanism underlying higher mental functions is a copy from social interaction; all higher mental functions are internalised social relationships. (Vygotsky, 1988,p74,p14) Piaget assumed that development and instruction are entirely separate, incommensurate processes; the function of instruction is merely to introduce adult ways of thinking, which conflict with the child's own and eventually supplant them.

  2. Describe Five Different Types of Families

    The spouses' spouse then becomes that spouse's step-children. For example, if Bob married Jane; Jane's children would be Bob's 'step-children' and he their 'step-father'. In contrast Bob's children would be Jane's step-children and she their 'step-mother'.

  1. The writer will define what a family is, describe the three different forms of ...

    One of the biggest problems lone parents face is loneliness, having to bring up children on their own especially when the parents is used to making joint decisions about their welfare, missing intimacy or sharing life with another adult.

  2. Describe and Evaluate Bowlby's and Ainsworth's ideas about parent-child relationships.

    Brief Description Mother and Babyc 30 seconds Observer introduces the mother and baby to the experimental room and then leaves. 2. Mother and Babycgd fogd 3 minutes Marx Mother is non-participant while baby explores: if necessary, play is stimulated after 2 minutes 3cocf!

  1. Physical, Social and Emotional Development of Children.

    Bowlby argued that infants and parents are innately attuned to each other. Infants display what he called "signalling behaviours" such as smiling, laughing, and clinging to their caregivers. Signalling behaviours attract the caregiver's attention and bring them into close contact, and thus enhance the infant's chances for survival.

  2. How has Bowlby's original formulation of attachment theory been modified in the light of ...

    The maternal deprivation hypothesis then, in the light of recent research, seems to be too narrow in it's focus on the maternal figure. Bowlby was also influenced by the films of hospitalised children created by the Robertson's (1967 - 1973), which highlighted the protest, despair and denial displayed, by these children.

  1. In Britain today, most people live in nuclear families - The aim of this ...

    the kibbutz live communally and bring their children up collectively, but even here, parent-child relationships are encouraged. The advantages of living in the kibbutz is that everyone is equal as jobs and procedures are shared between all the members, not one single person would keep to the same job.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    COMMUNICATION WITHIN A GROUP SITUATION Communication skills within a group interaction are just as imperative as communication on a one to one basis. A set of people in today's language is considered as a 'group'. A member of a group may posses the sense of belonging and this gives the members of a particular group and 'group feeling'.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work