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Dreaming is said to be a series of visual images usually occurring in stage 5 or REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, which are characterised by rapid eye movement in which the individual appears to be watching the dream unfold. There are two main approaches to dreaming: neurobiological and physiological. Neurobiological approaches describe dreaming as reverse learning so at to delete any useless and unwanted information gathered during the day. The other is the psychological approach and says that dreaming is learning or problem solving any emotional reactions in life. One psychological theory of dreaming is Freud's wish fulfilment theory (1990). This theory suggests that all dreams represent a wish fulfilment of repressed desires in life. The theory was derived from his patient's descriptions of their dreams and these dreams were often suggested to be unacceptable to the dreamer. So they suggested that a dream was a disguised fulfilment of a repressed desire. It could be disguised because the repressed desires could be sexual or aggressive urges which would be unacceptable to the dreamer when awake. ...read more.


In that repressed era it was likely that there would be fulfilment taking place in dreams. As in the early part of the century was not open as it is today and due to that there is little repression with feelings in today's society so there is no need for these dreams. Also the content of the dreams is open to analyst and there may be individual difference within the dreamer of the analyst in the way the dream is translated. Nightmares are also not explained and what would nightmares be fulfilling. Recent studies with patients who have brain damage in the cortical-limbic circuit in the front of the brain shows that dreams may reflect our unconscious wishes and desires as predicted by Freud. Crick and Mitchson (1983) came up with a reverse learning theory. This theory suggests that the actual function of dreaming is to get rid of useless information taking up valuable space in the brain, so that the neural networks do not become overloaded therefore the brain works more efficiently. ...read more.


Another criticism would be that modern ideas suggest the brain has a vast amount of space available so there is no need to make space. There are many theories of dreaming in both psychological and neurobiological areas. These theories and researchers suggest dreaming to be meaningless to others who say it is a form of reverse learning and problem solving which integrates a days experience with stored memories. An emerging view is that memories of the day's events are stored in the hippocampus and then during sleep they are integrated with experiences permanently stored in the cortex. These sometimes become imagery of dreams which reflect the attempt to link recent memories with past ones. Neurobiological theories suggest dreams as accidental by products of brain activity. When getting rid of useless information but this does not explain dreams which mean something. Also psychological theories can only explain some dreams and do not account for the physiological process. Neurobiological theories could compensate for the physiological process by the activity found in REM and NREM sleep. However these theories are only partial explanations of REM activity when dreaming. ?? ?? ?? ?? OUTLINE AND EVALUATE ONE NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND ONE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF DREAMING Habibur-Rahman Laher 72E ...read more.

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