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Outline and evaluate research into cross-cultural variations in attachment

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´╗┐Outline and evaluate research into cross-cultural variations in attachment (12) The aim of Takahashi?s controlled observation was to see if the strange situation, created by Mary Ainsworth in America was appropriate to use for Japanese infants and whether it was a true reflection of their attachment. It tested whether the strange situation was universal to cultures or just to the culture it was developed in (American, white, middle class). Takahashi took 60 infants from middle class backgrounds in Japan. They were all one year of age and had been raised at home. Takahashi found that 68% on infants were securely attached however 32% were resistant-insecure. ...read more.


There were only 60 infants all from middle class backgrounds all brought up at home. The study was a parachute study, the whole population of Japan isn't reflected because within Japan there are many sub-cultures. This means the study lacks population validity. The aim of the Grossman and Grossman study was to look at attachment types amongst German infants. Each infant and mother was observed. Firstly the parent and infant alone, then the stranger joins the parent and infant, the parent leaves infant and stranger alone, parent returns and stranger leaves. The observers looked at the reaction of child when the mother leaves, its reaction to the stranger and on the mothers return. ...read more.


A weakness of the Takahashi study is that only 60 infants were tested in Japan all from middle class backgrounds. The study was a parachute study which means the observation was only ever done in one part of Japan and never repeated. This shows low population validity that does not look at sub-cultures within Japan. An advantage of both is that they are observational studies meaning we can see exactly how the parents and child react and we can see things that would not be possible to see in a questionnaire. Both studies show that the strange situation is not innate and that you need cultural variation of it in order for it to be a true reflection of attachment in that culture. ...read more.

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