• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate research into cross-cultural variations in attachment

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Outline and evaluate research into cross-cultural variations in attachment (12) The aim of Takahashi?s controlled observation was to see if the strange situation, created by Mary Ainsworth in America was appropriate to use for Japanese infants and whether it was a true reflection of their attachment. It tested whether the strange situation was universal to cultures or just to the culture it was developed in (American, white, middle class). Takahashi took 60 infants from middle class backgrounds in Japan. They were all one year of age and had been raised at home. Takahashi found that 68% on infants were securely attached however 32% were resistant-insecure. ...read more.


There were only 60 infants all from middle class backgrounds all brought up at home. The study was a parachute study, the whole population of Japan isn't reflected because within Japan there are many sub-cultures. This means the study lacks population validity. The aim of the Grossman and Grossman study was to look at attachment types amongst German infants. Each infant and mother was observed. Firstly the parent and infant alone, then the stranger joins the parent and infant, the parent leaves infant and stranger alone, parent returns and stranger leaves. The observers looked at the reaction of child when the mother leaves, its reaction to the stranger and on the mothers return. ...read more.


A weakness of the Takahashi study is that only 60 infants were tested in Japan all from middle class backgrounds. The study was a parachute study which means the observation was only ever done in one part of Japan and never repeated. This shows low population validity that does not look at sub-cultures within Japan. An advantage of both is that they are observational studies meaning we can see exactly how the parents and child react and we can see things that would not be possible to see in a questionnaire. Both studies show that the strange situation is not innate and that you need cultural variation of it in order for it to be a true reflection of attachment in that culture. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Consider what psychological research has shown us about cross-cultural variations in attachment

    3 star(s)

    The Strange Situation measurement assumes that separation anxiety indicates secure attachment. However, Takahashi demonstrates that the reason infants become anxious in the Strange Situation may not be due to the secure or insecure attachment. Behaviour seen as normal in the USA may be seen differently in other societies.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Strange situation has been used in many different countries to investigate attachments." Outline ...

    These infant classifications were significantly correlated with ratings of the mother's sensitivity, based purely on interview data; and the amount of holding by the mother, based on observation. Ainsworth & bell replicated this study in the USA. Similarly, interviews and naturalistic observation were used.

  1. Attachment and Separation.

    the younger the subject the more likely are his behaviour and his mental state to be the two sides of a single coin. Provided observations are skilled and detailed, therefore, a record of the behaviour of very young children can be regarded as a useful index of their concurrent mental state".

  2. A research project to look if bullying is spiralling out of control

    In depth interviews provide rich information which is likely to represent their views accurately. Subjects have the freedom to give an answer on their own terms. But as with questionnaires there are a number of problems that might arise from using these.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work