• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate research into the effect of misleading information on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Outline and evaluate research into the effect of misleading information on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (12 marks) Misleading questions are when questions are used to give a false memory to a person giving an eyewitness testimony, for example ?was the knife used?? rather than ?was a knife used??. The use of the word ?the? assumes there was a knife present, where there may not have been. This means the participant may subconsciously create a memory around the idea of a knife being there, meaning they may not even realize they?re doing it. One study to investigate misleading questions is the Loftus and Palmer (1974) study, the reconstruction of automobile destruction, which aimed to test their hypothesis that language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory. They aimed to test whether leading questions can distort memories. ...read more.


Some were asked "Did you see a broken headlight?" and others were asked "Did you see the broken headlight?" There was no broken headlight in the film clip. Out of participants asked if they saw the headlight, 17% said they had seen it in comparison to those asked if seen a headlight, where 7%^ said they had seen it. They concluded The use of leading questions in an interview can lead to the creation of false memories by the eyewitness - therefore eyewitness testimony is subject to inaccuracy and its reliability can be questioned. Despite this, Yuille and Cutshall (1986) founds that in circumstances of high or low stress/anxiety, efficiency of memory is much worse. The optimum level is in the middle of the two, which is where the Loftus and Palmer study may have taken place. ...read more.


Loftus and Pickrell found that significantly more people from the group with the bugs bunny outline remembered seeing him in comparison to the group without the bugs bunny outline. This supports the idea that information we receive after creating a memory can alter that memory. One piece of refuting evidence is Loftus (1979). Loftus showed participants a set of slides that showed the theft of a large red purse from a handbag, they were then asked to read an account of the theft, the story gave the error that the purse had been brown, it was found that most participants except for 2, correctly remembered that the purse was red. This means, for information that is noticeable, the person who saw the event is more likely to keep their original memory intact. This shows that the original study may have lacked relevance & importance to the participants and this may have contributed to the differing findings. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Measurements of Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimonies

    4 star(s)

    The independent groups t-test, assumes homogeneity of variance, even though the means may be different. A problem with this test is that it is difficult to decide if the assumption is satisfied. However as long as the estimated variance is not four times greater than the other sample, the test can be used successfully.

  2. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    I knew that I was in trouble." The next day he was also able to recall conversations with his mother from after the mall scenario, claiming, "I remember mom telling me never to do that again." The memory appeared to be stronger after a few weeks had passed and Chris was invited to the laboratory.

  1. Stroop Effect

    To see all the standard deviation calculations, then see (appendix 4) Noun Words Colour Words Mean Time (seconds) 29 34 Standard deviation 3 6 As you can see from the table and graph, it took participants much more longer to successfully name the colour words list than the noun words list.

  2. The Stroop Effect

    it difficult to read the lists fast then the results will be skewed one way and can't be generalised and are low in ecological validity, the results will only show how people behave within a noisy environment. This can be improved by making use of laboratory conditions; if the amount

  1. A Study to Investigate Whether Leading Questions have an Effect on Memory

    given in the memory test by those asked the question with the definite article and the number of incorrect answers given by those asked the question with the use of the indefinite article. Any difference that does occur will be down to chance.

  2. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information on the accuracy of ...

    The participants were shown films of care accidents, which does not represent real life as they were not emotionally aroused in the way that they would have been in an real accident.

  1. Testing the Stroop Effect on Students

    in the same order it would be likely that the scores would get better after each person went. If the scores did this, it would mean that others in the group had learned the names of the colors and it would skew the results.

  2. Describe and Evaluate Research by E.Loftus into Eye Witness Testimony, the implications of the ...

    Again this was a controlled study but witnessing a real life crime is likely to be more stressful than an experiment and memory recall and accuracy will most certainly be affected. Another factor that influences eyewitness testimony is the 'Weapons Focus Effect' where the eyewitness is concentrated on the weapon

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work