• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and Evaluate research (theories/ and studies) into the relationship between stress and physical illness.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Outline and Evaluate research (theories/ and studies) into the relationship between stress and physical illness. 18 marks Stress is an example of a behavior and experience explained in physiological and psychological terms. Recently awareness has been highlighted concerning harmful effects of stress on our lives and how it can be managed and prevented. Stress is often associated with anxiety, strain, tension, distress and fatigue. The effects of stress include biochemical physiological and psychological changes, most show with ill health or unusual behavior. Therefore medical and psychological research findings in this area are crucial in aiding our understanding of the issue. Stress is usually the way we perceive stressors e.g. divorce, and the way we feel we are able to cope with things. ...read more.

Middle

- Stage 2, Resistance - The body adpats to stressor but becomes more susceptible to damage from the stress responses. - Stage 3, Exhaustion - The body's systems can no longer maintain normal functioning, possibly resulting in damage to immune system or stress related illness. There is increasing evidence that stress can cause illness by interfering with the immune system. The immune system protects the body from harmful viruses. When the stress response is activated, the activity of the immune system is slowed down. One of the earliest studies into the effects of stress on the immune system was conducted by Riley 1981 using mice. He placed the mice on a rotating turntable to cause stress. Riley measured the mice's lymphocyte count over a five-hour period and found they decreased, indicating suppression of the immune system. ...read more.

Conclusion

They found within 9 years of starting the study, 70% of the number who died were type A individuals. Therefore personality type and stress are closely related and together are related to the risk of CHD. The criticisms of these studies are that in the Riley study it raised ethical issues about the use of animals in laboratory experiments. Also, we cannot generalize findings from an animal study to humans because our pressures are completely different to animals. In Kiecolt-Glaser study there are possibilities that the findings may be affected by individual differences and so there may be an indirect relationship between stress and illness e.g. individuals who are stressed may smoke or drink more this leads to an unhealthy individual. Finally, Friedman and Rosenman did not use a mixed sample gender, and were only taken from California, so again the results cannot be generalized because of differences between genders and cultural variations can occur. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Response to the question

This answer would achieve every one of the 18 marks available for it, because the candidate reads the question, understands the task they propose, and forms and answers clearly, intelligently, and precisely pertaining to what the question asks. They use ...

Read full review

Response to the question

This answer would achieve every one of the 18 marks available for it, because the candidate reads the question, understands the task they propose, and forms and answers clearly, intelligently, and precisely pertaining to what the question asks. They use a wide variety of psychological knowledge, showing the examiner they have learnt extensively about the nature of stress and physical illness, and have shown evidence of ability to use psychological empirical evidence to fortify their answer. This indicates to the examiner a candidate with an aptitude to write analytically whilst using facts as a basis - a very confident style of writing that works on many levels to satisfy mark schemes.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis is very good. The candidate provides plenty of evidence suggesting their is a strong link between stress levels and physical illness and a balanced counter argument suggesting otherwise. The balance is required so that it shows examiner show a candidate can formed a fair evaluation of theoretical psychology with the use of empirical psychology to support the theories. There is a touch of personal awareness in the answer and, whilst not obligatory, does help the answer feels more personsalised and the candidate more invested in their answer. This is great for examiners who have to mark long essays with similar topics, and it really helps the answer stand out as a fresh, innovative style of writing, which can help the examiner become more engaged and will ultimately mark more accurately.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication is flawless. The candidate takes great care in the written expression, and there are no causes for concern with regard to spelling, grammar or punctuation anywhere in the answer. The use of Psychology--related terminology is proficient and indicates a great level of intelligence and confidence to the examiner as well. All in all a brilliant essay.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by sydneyhopcroft 13/08/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss research into stress-related illness and the immune system

    5 star(s)

    We can also conclude that the research which provides us with evidence that stress effects the immune system negatively may not be representative of all types of stressors, or the duration or timing at which they occur, it is a reductionist argument that this research presents.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate research into the stages of sleep

    4 star(s)

    This is one reason why slow wave sleep has restorative effects. Other hormonal activities, like the secretion of prolactin and gonadotropin occur in these stages, making slow wave sleep a phase of rest and healing. "REM" Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement)

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Outline and evaluate research into the effects of stress on the immune system and ...

    3 star(s)

    Russerk found that the high stress level groups had a percentage of 11.5% compared to the low stress group which had only 3.2%, compared to the national average. Therefore the low stress groups were less likely to develop heart disease than the high stress groups.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Managing stress through Exercise and Therapy

    3 star(s)

    A secondary appraisal can actually cause a primary appraisal. Secondary appraisals include feelings of not being able to deal with the problem such as: * I can't do it-I know I'll fail * I will try, but my chances are slim * I can do it if I get help * If this method fails, I can try a few others.

  1. Stress can be explained as the stimulus in the environment that triggers a stress ...

    maths test) while the blood flow to their hearts & their blood pressure were measured. * The stressful tasks caused less blood flow to the heart (condition called 'myocardial ischemia') the stressful task caused higher blood pressure. * Stress may have a direct influence on aspects of body functioning, making cardiovascular disorder more likely.

  2. Nursing care as applied to a client with a mental health problem

    We would also discuss how she would deal with the situation if she were to suffer an epileptic fit while in a bus or out walking. This technique is a form of behaviour therapy called graded exposure (Atkinson 1993) it is all very well facilitating the person to understand why

  1. Identify and discuss strategies for coping with Stress

    Kobasa found two different groups between the managers. One group who suffered from high amounts of stress but had very little illnesses and the other group who had high amounts of stress and a high amount of illnesses. Kobasa found that the group the had high amounts of stress but

  2. Describe and evaluate what psychological research has shown us about stress and the immune ...

    Many studies have found links between stress and the onset of illness; however measures to judge reliability of each study need be in place in order to reach a conclusion. In 1993 the study carried out by Cohen et al involved investigations into the role of general life stress on the vulnerability of the common cold virus.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work