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Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory.

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Introduction

Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. The idea of the multi-store model of memory suggests that there are three different memory stores - a sensory store, a short term store and a long term store. Information is at first received by the sensory store, as the name suggests, from our senses (what we see, hear etc.). The information we receive can then be processed by the short term store and stored in our short term memories. This information in the short term store could then be processed further by the long term store. This would explain why rehearsal is needed in order to process and transfer information to the long term memory. ...read more.

Middle

This gives valid evidence that there are separate memory stores. Further evidence for separate stores can be seen in Baddeley's study into the encoding of both long term and short term memory. Baddeley found that short term memory encodes information acoustically and that long term memory encodes semantically. He presented participants with four sets of different words - Set A (acoustically similar), Set B (acoustically dissimilar), Set C (semantically similar) and Set D (semantically dissimilar). By splitting the participants up into two groups, he was able to make some participants use their short term memories by asking them to recall the sets immediately after presentation, and the rest were to use their long term memories by having a timed delay between presentation and recall. ...read more.

Conclusion

Peterson and Peterson found that short term memory has duration of 18 seconds. They found this by presenting participants with trigrams which they were to recall after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 seconds after 18 seconds, only 10% of the trigrams could be recalled, showing that the duration of short term memory is 18 seconds. Bahrick's study proved that the duration of long term memory is different. He discovered this through American ex high school students being tested on who they could remember from their school days. His findings show that most ex students were 90% accurate when doing face and name recognition. Older participants weren't as accurate with 80% for name recognition and 40% for face recognition. This does, however, show that although the memory, may fade with age, it does still carry information for a long time. ...read more.

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