• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline the clinical characteristics of depression or schizophrenia?

Extracts from this document...


1) Outline the clinical characteristics of depression or schizophrenia? The DSM-IV claims that for a person to be diagnosed with a major-depressive disorder episode they would have to show evidence of five symptoms that would have to occur nearly everyday for the minimum of two weeks and these symptoms are: -Emotional Symptoms = feelings of sadness, depressed mood and the loss of pleasure in their usual activities. -Motivational Symptoms = the changes in their activity level showing no interest and having low levels of energy. -Somatic Symptoms= Experiencing insomnia or having increased amount of sleeping. (Hypersomnia) Showing signs of weight gain or loss. -Cognitive Symptoms=Feelings of negative self-concept, hopelessness, pessimism, lack of self esteem and self-blame. Having difficultly to concentrate or with the ability to think clearly. Also having recurring thoughts of suicide and death. All of these above are the clinical characteristics of depression. 2) Outline and evaluate two or more of explanations of the above...? The psychodynamic approach by Freud states that depression is linked to grief and loss, such as a loss of a relationship. ...read more.


There is evidence that does show depression is caused by experiencing losses such as Finlay-Jones and Brown found that depressed people had more stressful life events a year before the onset of depression and was also found that half of these stressful events were experiences of losses. Details of the psychodynamic approach have been shown to be incorrect as Freud claimed that these feelings of repressed anger would have appeared in their dreams but this was not found by Beck and Ward. Another prediction that was made by Freud is that the anger and hostility that a depressed person felt should be expressed mainly towards themselves however though Weissman, Klerman and Bifulco et al. found that they expressed the anger and hostility towards those close to them. This explanation is limited because no evidence of genetic factors is being used. Lastly was found by Freud that those who experience major losses in the early part of their lives are more likely and vulnerable to develop clinical depression in their adult hood but this evidence was found to inconsistent by Crook and Eliot. ...read more.


It is said that people with learned helplessness apply their failure to internal, stable and global causes showing that they blame themselves for the failure and that this will be a persistent thing which causes influence of most of situations that will occur in the future. Those who experience learned helplessness have pessimistic and negative views on the world making them easy victims of depression. According to Beck and Clark people have depressive schemas which consist of organized information that is stored in their long term memory of a cognitive triad which means that a person will have negative feelings of themselves, the world and the future. However cause and effect with this theory as it is argued whether the negative views and feelings cause the depression or it's the depression that makes an individual feel these negative feeling and views. But it was found by evidence that depression causes the negative thoughts and not the other way round. However it was found by Seligman that negative attribution that was experienced in older children was predicted having the development of depressive symptoms in responses to a stressful life event; therefore it concludes that these negative thoughts can make an individual vulnerable to depression. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Outline Clinical Characteristics of Schizophrenia and discuss psychological explanations of Schizophrenia

    A strength of this theory is the supporting evidence from Berger. He found that SZ patients reported a higher recall of double bind statements (conflicting messages) by their mothers than non SZ patients. However this reliability of this study was criticised as patients recall may be affected by their SZ.

  2. Teenagers in Depression.

    may occur in young adults, some have to cope with more serious problems that could have a detrimental effect on the young person's health and well being for, possibly the rest of their lives. Serious medical problems such as eating disorders often represent teenagers' attempts to gain some sort of

  1. What are the Risk Factors for Childhood and Adolescent Depression?

    theoretical divisions of psychosexual development as demarcated by Freud (1905/1953) and Erikson (1950)." Within each of these groups, prevalence has been found to be as follows. In children younger than 12, the incidence of depression is said to be about 2 to 3 % of the population (Angold & Costello,

  2. Can a case be made for the use of homeopathy in the treatment of ...

    Modern clinical psychology speculates that depression is largely based on a neurotransmitter-receptor mechanism. Figure 1 shows this relationship. Research suggests that mood disorders may result from changes in the sensitivity of the neuronal receptors but the precise nature of these neurotransmitter-receptor mechanisms, and just how they affect mood, is not yet fully understood6.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work