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Outline the clinical characteristics of depression or schizophrenia?

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1) Outline the clinical characteristics of depression or schizophrenia? The DSM-IV claims that for a person to be diagnosed with a major-depressive disorder episode they would have to show evidence of five symptoms that would have to occur nearly everyday for the minimum of two weeks and these symptoms are: -Emotional Symptoms = feelings of sadness, depressed mood and the loss of pleasure in their usual activities. -Motivational Symptoms = the changes in their activity level showing no interest and having low levels of energy. -Somatic Symptoms= Experiencing insomnia or having increased amount of sleeping. (Hypersomnia) Showing signs of weight gain or loss. -Cognitive Symptoms=Feelings of negative self-concept, hopelessness, pessimism, lack of self esteem and self-blame. Having difficultly to concentrate or with the ability to think clearly. Also having recurring thoughts of suicide and death. All of these above are the clinical characteristics of depression. 2) Outline and evaluate two or more of explanations of the above...? The psychodynamic approach by Freud states that depression is linked to grief and loss, such as a loss of a relationship. ...read more.


There is evidence that does show depression is caused by experiencing losses such as Finlay-Jones and Brown found that depressed people had more stressful life events a year before the onset of depression and was also found that half of these stressful events were experiences of losses. Details of the psychodynamic approach have been shown to be incorrect as Freud claimed that these feelings of repressed anger would have appeared in their dreams but this was not found by Beck and Ward. Another prediction that was made by Freud is that the anger and hostility that a depressed person felt should be expressed mainly towards themselves however though Weissman, Klerman and Bifulco et al. found that they expressed the anger and hostility towards those close to them. This explanation is limited because no evidence of genetic factors is being used. Lastly was found by Freud that those who experience major losses in the early part of their lives are more likely and vulnerable to develop clinical depression in their adult hood but this evidence was found to inconsistent by Crook and Eliot. ...read more.


It is said that people with learned helplessness apply their failure to internal, stable and global causes showing that they blame themselves for the failure and that this will be a persistent thing which causes influence of most of situations that will occur in the future. Those who experience learned helplessness have pessimistic and negative views on the world making them easy victims of depression. According to Beck and Clark people have depressive schemas which consist of organized information that is stored in their long term memory of a cognitive triad which means that a person will have negative feelings of themselves, the world and the future. However cause and effect with this theory as it is argued whether the negative views and feelings cause the depression or it's the depression that makes an individual feel these negative feeling and views. But it was found by evidence that depression causes the negative thoughts and not the other way round. However it was found by Seligman that negative attribution that was experienced in older children was predicted having the development of depressive symptoms in responses to a stressful life event; therefore it concludes that these negative thoughts can make an individual vulnerable to depression. ...read more.

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