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Outline the phases of attachment by Schaffer and Emerson

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Outline the phases of attachment by Schaffer and Emerson. (6 marks) One of the most influential accounts of the development of attachment is by Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson in 1964. They suggested that there are three main stages to the attachment process. Stage 1: Which is from birth to 6 weeks. Schaffer and Emerson called this the 'Asocial Stage'. According to Schaffer and Emerson, babies during this period do not act in a social manner. Babies respond to people in much the same way as the do to everything else, for example toys. They also do not show any recognition of individual people. Stage 2: Which is from 6 weeks to 7 months. Schaffer and Emerson called this the 'Indiscriminate Attachment Stage'. According to Schaffer and Emerson, infants can now distinguish between people and things, and show a general sociability towards people. Schaffer later divided Stage 2 into two parts in 1977. ...read more.


Give two criticisms of the Strange Situation (Ainsworth) (6 marks) Two of the main criticisms of the 'Strange Situation' experiment designed by Mary Ainsworth and colleagues in 1978 are: Firstly, it has been criticised for being unrealistic. This means the setting for the experiment is not true to life, it does not reflect everyday situations. As a result, it may not be possible to generalise the findings to real-life settings. So, the Strange Situation is low in ecological validity. As the name suggests, the strange situation provides a strange and unfamiliar environment for the caregiver and infant. Secondly, the ethics of the Strange Situation have been examined. Is it acceptable to place infants and caregivers in situations, which can produce mild, and, in some cases, extreme anxiety? Certain episodes in the experiment are cut short if the infant appears extremely distressed. And, the caregiver can return if they feel the infant really needs them. Even so, should these situations be allowed to arise in the first place? ...read more.


However, some psychological disorders do not involve personal distress. A major problem is- how do we measure personal distress? Distress is a subjective experience- it refers to emotions and feelings, which are difficult to measure. There are problems with using personal distress as an indicator for psychological abnormality. However, combined with other indicators, it may help to identify certain psychological disorders. Explain the term 'Cultural relativism' as it applies to individual difference. (6 marks) Meads (1935) classic study of societies in New Guinea showed that there were both similarities and differences in gender roles across societies. The fact that there were the same differences between men and women within each culture supports 'cultural relativism'. For example: that relative to each other there are always the same differences between men and women. If gender difference do reflect biological differences, then we would expect to find the same difference occurring in different cultures; any differences that exist between different cultures in relation to gender roles (cultural relativism) would tend to support the view that gender role is culturally determined. ...read more.

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