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Outline two perspectives on learning; choose from behaviourists, cognitive and humanistic (10)

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perspectives * A) Outline two perspectives on learning; choose from behaviourists, cognitive and humanistic (10) Behaviourists: When talking about the behaviourist approach to learning, there are three main techniques to consider; 1. Classical conditioning (Pavlov) 2. Operant conditioning ( Skinner) 3. Social Learning theory (SLT) (Bandura) Classical Conditioning is when behaviour is learned through a stimulus response bond (S_R) This is done by using unconditioned stimuli as well as conditioned stimuli. Simply put this method of behaviourist learning is able to create behaviour that doesn't normally exist (e.g. salivating at the sound of a bell) this is done through association. For example if a person was to ring a bell right before they fed the dog, the dog would salivate due to the presence of the food. If done enough times, the dog would salivate at the sound of the bell alone, even if no food was present (Pavlov's experiment) Operant Conditioning is used to shape behaviour that already exists in the learner. This is done through reinforcement whether it be positive (rewarding) negative (taking away a negative trait) or punishment Skinner found that people are more likely to learn a behaviour if they are rewarded after doing it (e.g. praise, gifts etc.) SLT refers to Bandura's research, as he believed that people can learn through vicarious learning watching other people doing or not doing as they do. ...read more.


negligent parenting) however it can be said that the higher meta needs would be easier to pursue if the basic needs were provided for the learner. This goes against Maslow's theory in that the hierarchy of needs can have exceptions based on individual differences (which can be analysed in the Myers Briggs Personality Indicator) * Cognitive psychologists believe that all information can be presented in a way that's best taken on by the learner. However this goes against the theories of Piaget and Ausubel who thought that information was exclusively better if present in certain ways, (bit by bit versus all encompassing respectively) The cognitive approach doesn't consider the learners as anything but information processors, which can also hurt students self esteem as they are not necessarily regarded as human beings who are valued (Rogers) When it comes down to it each perspective is very helpful to the improvement of learning within children however if used exclusively can cause their own contrasting problems. The best way in my eyes is to create a hybrid of the systems, for example, in regards to dealing with disruptive behaviour a behaviourist system of punishment be most effective, but then followed up with a humanistic debrief, (explaining why being punished) this would allow the student to learn the behaviour as well as maintain or reinforce self esteem * C Suggest ways of introducing a new topic in science to 10 yr olds using the cognitive approach. ...read more.


Although research shows that people work best within a quiet environment, others work just as well in extreme noise. This has to do with the learners being introverts or extroverts as the former tend to work better in more arousing environments (Yerkes dodson arousal levels on motivation) One way in which teachers can find out what type of learner their students are is by the Myers Briggs inventory, which can specifically tell the personality of the students. Due to the high amounts of individual differences, it can be next to impossible to nomothetically apply rules of how a class environment should be set out. Another factor which effects how environments can be used best is depending on the subject type being taught. For example, it would be very difficult to learn music in a noisy atmosphere as the sounds would interfere and distort the subject material. On the other hand PE would be less optimally taught in a quiet environment due to the high arousal level present in the nature of the subject. Art is another example when discussing environment, as it would require more than 500 lux (as was described on the Belgrade study) to be able to work at optimum efficiency. When it comes down to it research into learning environments can never come to a valid nomothetic answer to "what environment is bests?" question All research must be ideographically to the subject and the learner should always expect for there to be exceptions to the rule ...read more.

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