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P1: PSYCHOLOGY

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Introduction

P1: Using the following examples, describe the application of behaviourist perspectives in health and social care. -Describe how the principles of the operant conditioning may be used to explain why a child is having persistent tantrums. According to behaviourism, all behaviour is learned and maintained by its consequences. B. F. Skinner (1905-1990) devised apparatus and methods for studying these effects, it also can be unlearned too. The early behaviourists often examined animal learning (the famous skinner box for rats) and then extrapolated it to human learning. This was because they proposed that the fundamental principles of learning underpin the learning of all species. Reinforcement, an environmental stimulus that results in an increase in a given behaviour, has both positive and negative forms. The terms 'positive' and 'negative' refer to the presentation or removal of an environmental stimulus. ...read more.

Middle

In this scenario the mother should have talked calmly to the child before entering the shop and tell him/her that they will get rewarded if they display good behaviour. The child will continue to display bad behaviour if the mother keeps getting sweets for it when he/she throws a tantrum. -Describe how the principles of classical conditioning can explain why a patient is petrified of having injections. Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs' digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled "psychic reflexes." ...read more.

Conclusion

The individual is petrified about the stimuli (injections) as humans react to pain. The unconditioned stimulus reacts as an unlearned response as fear of pain comes naturally to us. The unlearned stimulus is paired with a stimulus which is an injection. Most injections cause humans to get scared a bit although some injections don't bother people as some are not as painful. Then the presentation of the injection to the human causes fear. The human is scared of the needle when they see it and have no idea yet of whether or not it will hurt, there for the response is a learned response, therefore it is an CR. ?? ?? ?? ?? Maria Gowdy - 1 - ...read more.

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