• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21

PERCEPTIONS ON COUNSELLING

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PERCEPTIONS ON COUNSELLING "People who have had counselling will be less influenced by external factors than those who haven't" RESEARCH PROJECT CONTENTS Page CONTENTS....................................................................................1 RATIONALE....................................................................................2 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................2 1. Identify and describe a range of research methods METHODOLOGY.............................................................................3 Primary data.......................................................................................... 4 Secondary data................................................................................4 Qualitative research..........................................................................5 Quantitative research........................................................................6 Questionnaires :...............................................................................6 Sampling :...................................................................................... 7 Interviews: ...................................................................................7-8 Observations : .................................................................................9 Literature: .................................................................................... 10 Case Study: ................................................................................. 11 Survey :........................................................................................11 2. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of research methods Validity: ........................................................................................12 Reliability: .....................................................................................13 Relevance: ....................................................................................13 Bias ETHICAL AND VALUE ISSUES:.........................................................14 Confidentiality: ................................................ ...............................14 Artificiality: .........................................................................................14 Choice in participation: ....................................................................15 3. Evaluate the research methods using a piece of research in counselling Brief dynamic counselling: making the right choice.................................15 The Implications for counselling practice: .............................................16 CONCLUSION............................................................................17-19 BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................20 APPENDIX Questionnaires Data from Research Questionnaires - Graph Research evaluation: Brief dynamic counselling: making the right choice RATIONALE With the increasing of crime, anti-social behaviour, parenting classes, terrorism, trauma, divorce and child abductions, it seems to me that society and government are recognising the impact and value of counselling in supporting the community and its mental well-being. The rapid expansion of supportive services suggests there are not nearly enough to go around. "The growth of interest in counselling in general has led to more people approaching therapy services...." (Richards.1999 pg.286) However, being a practicing counsellor and student in this area, I questioned the perception of how individuals perceived counselling, and if this perception held a bearing on who took up the service or not. During discussions about counselling the following statements were made: * Counselling is synonymous with having a problem * Counselling is expensive * Counselling does not met the needs of minority groups * Counselling does not address gender identity (more women than men) * Counselling is carried out by untrained busy-bodies or social workers Having heard this I decided to base my micro-research on "Perceptions on Counselling" looking at what a small range of individuals understand about undertaking counselling. ...read more.

Middle

Direct Observation - Direct observation are totally different from participant observations in a number of ways. Firstly, a direct observer doesn't typically try to become a participant in the context. However, the direct observer does strive to be as unnoticeable as possible as not to bias the observations. Secondly, direct observation suggests a more detached perspective. The researcher watches rather than takes part. Direct observation can also be achieved by videotape the subject or observing from behind one-way mirrors. Thirdly, direct observation tends to be more focused than participant observation. The researcher is observing certain sampled situations or people rather than trying to become involved in the entire context. Finally, direct observations may not to take as long as participant observation. When undertaking observations, it is important to consider how the information you collect will be analysed. Also, will the information gathered really answer your research questions? Our social lives are extremely complex and careful selection of what to look at is needed in order to give the most useful and informative data. Literature: Journal articles: These are useful for current and up-to-date information although that it can take up to two years to for an article to be publish. They are often used in literature reviews because they offer a concise, format for research, in addition all reputable journals are refereed (i.e. editors publish only the most relevant and reliable research). Books: Books on research have a tendency of going out of date quickly, plus it takes longer for a book to be published than for a journal article. Text books can be limiting as they are intended for teaching, not for research, however they do offer a good starting point from which to find more detailed sources. Conference proceedings: A less used resource amongst the others but can be useful in providing the latest research, or research to be published. It is also helpful in providing information on where people are currently involved in which research areas, and so can be helpful in tracking down other work by the same researchers. ...read more.

Conclusion

This perception is reinforced as stated: "... Even though some private therapists operate a 'sliding scale' of fees, there are very many people for whom even a 'low cost' of fees, there are very many people for whom even 'low cost' would be impossible to afford"...(Richards.1999 pg.297) The reason for counselling also influenced the decision to undertake counselling although there is not enough evidence that this is an external factor. With the various types of counselling available and the outcome stating many do not see counselling as a last resort, this indicates it is an internal factor to whether counselling is sort. With regards to external factors, 'race' of the counsellor was not deemed to be an issue; however the 'gender' of the counsellor scored much higher. Considering there was a higher percentage of female participants than males this in itself may not be a fair indication or reliable resource. In summary this is what I have learnt from this experiment. What have I learnt from conducting this investigation? * The need for a clearer hypothesis in the beginning. * The importance of clarity in the questions * Give more options than yes or no as an answer What problems / difficulties did I have? * Some difficulties analysing data when questions were not completed * Knowing how to choose information and select relevant questions. What did I do wrong or, if I were to do a similar investigation, what changes would I make? * I would reconsider the way the questionnaires were composed * I would consider as wider selection of questions * Giving more thought to the a wider selection of the community * Give more thought to relevance of some questions and the lack of clarity in others * Make more comparisons with other similar subjects * Give more considerations to the relevance of questions * Use all the information / data received (data on gender and age not used) * Consider other methods such as case studies, interviews. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Describe the application of behaviorist perspectives in health and social care. Describe the application ...

    The id is based on a pleasure principle and wants what it wants when it wants it. This is why it is linked to babies instincts as this is how a baby will react in the firs several mounts of there life.

  2. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    such as interrupting the witness whilst they were recalling information.15 Other methods sometimes used include hypnosis. It was widely believed that hypnosis may help witnesses to relive the experience of the incident and so produce better recall performance; however studies carried out have offered opposing evidence. Orne et al (1984)

  1. A counselling Interview

    He had recently experienced the breakdown of a long term relationship and was now struggling to cope with the sale of his property and at the same time, commit to a new relationship. Also he appeared to be having problems controlling anxiety issues, coupled with a sudden loss of direction, possibly intensified by his current circumstances.

  2. Memory and Mental Imagery

    16 10 15 12 18 11 12 9 12 13 16 10 17 12 18 8 17 10 17 9 Table to show central measures and range of scores obtained by participants who were either aided by mental imagery in the learning of word pairs and the control group Mode

  1. Summarise the aims and context of Bennett-Levy & Marteau (1984) Fear of animals: What ...

    They were asked to complete one of two questionnaires, which were distributed in a random order. Group 1 (completed questionnaire 1) had a total of 64 participants including 34 females and 30 males. The mean age of group 1 was 35.5 years (SD=16.9).

  2. Free essay

    Correlation between age and sleep

    15 71 10.14 Mail 23 16 61.3 8.76 Mali 42 17 58 8.29 Mail 52 18 54 7.71 Mail 53 19 37.25 5.32 Mail 32 20 42 6.00 Mail 30 21 45.75 6.54 Mail 23 22 47.5 6.79 Mail 29 23 62 8.86 Mail 34 24 43 6.14 Mail 40

  1. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    the treatment beneficial compared with 65% from therapies based on a number of different approaches. Tschuschke et al (2007) reported that the longer treatment lasts the more effective it will be. Others support the idea of early experiences effecting later psychological health, Kindler et al (1996)

  2. Describe and Evaluate Research by E.Loftus into Eye Witness Testimony, the implications of the ...

    The offenders were classified as either organised or disorganised. The American approach to profiling referred to as the ?Top Down? involves 4 stages, Data assimilation, Crime classification, Crime reconstruction and Profile generation. Once the data is entered into the database, it is compared continually against other entries on the basis of certain aspects of the crime.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work