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Personality. personality can be divided into seven categories which are psychodynamic, phenomenological trait/factor biological behavioral, cognitive, and social .

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Introduction

Kareena Uttamchandani Psychology/ A LEVELS 21st September, 2003 Personality People differ from each other is obvious. How and why they differ is less clear and is an important part of the study of personality. Personality psychology addresses the questions of shared human nature, dimensions of individual differences and unique patterns of individuals. Personality has several definitions which are :- 1. "...the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment" (G. Allport, 1937). 2. "...a dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person's characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts and feelings" (G. Allport, 1961). 3. "The enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances" (D. Westen, 2002). 4. "The ways in which general "laws" of physiology, perception, memory, learning, motivation, and social influence-which are assumed to apply universally to all people-are integrated and expressed in individual persons, each of whom is unique" (D. ...read more.

Middle

Research in personality ranges from analyses of genetic codes and studies of biological systems to the study of sexual, social, ethnic, and cultural bases of thought, feelings, and behavior. Personality research includes studies of cognitive abilities, interpersonal styles, and emotional reactivity. Methods range from laboratory experiments to longitudinal field studies and include data reduction techniques such as factor analysis and principal components analysis, as well as structural modeling and multi-level modeling procedures. Measurement issues of most importance are those of reliability and stability of individual differences. Personality theories attempt to account for individual behavior. A theory is a model of reality that helps us to understand, explain, predict, and control that reality. In the study of personality, these models are usually verbal. The word "theories" is used as we all have pretty direct access to our own thoughts and feelings, and plenty of experience dealing with people. ...read more.

Conclusion

Personality theorists are interested in the structure of the individual, the psychological structure in particular. How are people "put together;" how do they "work;" how do they "fall apart." Some theorists go a step further and say they are looking for the essence of being a person. Or they say they are looking for what it means to be an individual human being. The field of personality psychology stretches from a fairly simple empirical search for differences between people to a rather philosophical search for the meaning of life! Personality disorders are lifelong conditions in which personality traits are so inflexible and maladaptive that they cause social and occupational impairments and considerable distress, to others if not to the people themselves. Many different types of personality disorders are recognized. The paranoid personality, for example, is unduly suspicious and mistrustful. Histrionic personalities are characterized by overly dramatic behavior and expression. People with narcissistic personalities tend to be self-important and need constant attention and admiration. Those with antisocial personality disorders have a history of violating the rights of others and of failing to observe social norms. ...read more.

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