• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14

Primacy and Recency effect

Extracts from this document...


Abstract The aim of this investigation was to investigate Glanzer and Cunitz theory of the Primacy and Recency effect that the first few words and the last few words in a list of will tend to be remembered and recalled more than the words positioned in the middle of the list. Glanzer and Cunitz found from their experiment that the first few words were recalled because of, the middle words were not recalled well because they had been displaced by the incoming words and the last few words were recalled well because they were still present in the short term memory. A controlled experiment was used with a repeated measure design and the sampling method that was used to carry out the experiment was opportunity sampling, which included 20 participants who were all students at St. Mary's College, Blackburn. The participants ranged between the age group of 16-18 year old students. Participants were asked to carry out a free recall task which included a word list with 30 words and they were given the word list to look at for a minute and then asked immediately to recall as many words as they could remember in any order. The results found showed that the Primacy and Recency effect had occurred as this was shown in the mean recall rate calculated. The Primacy meaning the first ? of the words from the word list (1-10) had a mean recall rate of 7.9. The second ? of the words from the middle of the list (11-20) had a mean recall rate of 5.5. Finally the final ? of the words from the list (21-30) had a mean recall rate of 9.4. From the results of this experiment, it was concluded that the experimental hypothesis was accepted which stated: The first 10 words of a list of 30 (positioned 1-10) and the last10 words (positioned 21-30) ...read more.


This was crucial as if they participants were told what was going to be found and was exactly the experiment was about in detail then this would not produce results in a reliable way as they would not be a true reflection as the participants know what the experiment is about the will act in a way to please the researcher. Participants The target population for this experiment were all students of year 12 attending St. Mary's College in Blackburn at an age group between 16-18years old. The sample consisted of 20 participants and the sampling method used was opportunity sampling where first available participants were chosen from the college canteen. Opportunity sampling method was chosen due to the fact that this method of sampling is quick, convenient, less time consuming therefore the most economical method of sampling compared to other sampling method. Procedure Part of the target population, which was males and females students attending St. Mary's College, Blackburn between the age group of 16-18, where 20 participants were chosen to participate The participants were approached in the college canteen and asked if they would spare few minutes to take part in an AS psychology coursework if they agreed, they were politely taken into library in one of the quiet room individually. After being taken to the room the participant was given a brief statement, consent form to be read and signed and they were verbally informed what will happen in the experiment and that they have the right to leave the experiment if they wished. Participants were then given a standardised instruction sheet, which informed them on how to carry out the short experiment. After reading the standardised sheet the participant was given the list of words sheet which was facing down on the desk so that the participants do not look at the words and they were once again verbally asked to look at the words on the sheet for 1 minute and the duration of 1minute was timed using a stopwatch. ...read more.


And see as to whether age has an effect on the words recalled. In conclusion the results of this experiment showed that the Primacy and Recency effect had occurred. The results of the experiment could be used to show that people tend to remember the first few words and the last few words better than the words found in the middle. Appendix 6 Calculations Mean calculation for the first ? of the words (1-10) 14+8+5+12+2+5+3+0+13+17=79 79/10= 7.9 7.9 is the calculated mean value for the first ? of the words (1-10_ Mean calculation for the second ? of the words (11-20) 7+8+2+11+1+1+3+2+9+11= 55 55/10= 5.5 5.5 is the calculated mean value for the second ? of the words (11-20) Mean calculation for the final ? of the words from the word list (21-30) 12+11+13+1+3+14+6+2+17+15= 94 94/10= 9.4 9.4 is the calculated mean value for the final ? of the words (21-30) Materials and apparatus > Consent form for participants in order to gain permission to carry on with the experiment. (See appendix 1) > Debriefing sheet to make sure that the participants are kept fully informed of what the experiment is about and what will be done after the experiment i.e. what will be done with the results. ( See appendix 3) > Standardised instructions to let the participant know what to do once the experiment in on or what is expected from them (See appendix 2) > Pens so that the participants can write down the words recalled > Paper so that the participant can write down the words recalled > A quiet, well lit room with a sign on the door which will state that " do not disturb" > 20 participants needed so that I can test my hypothesis > A stop watch to time the participants > Word list which will include the words which the participants will need to memorise and recall. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Psychology Revision Notes - list of major experiments

    3 star(s)

    Infants were looked after and breast fed by different women but slept with their mother at night, after 6 months they still showed one PAF Monotropy - Shaffer and Emerson - also agreed that strongly attached infants had mothers who responded sensitively to their demands and offered them most attention,

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of interference on memory recall

    The participants agreed that this was not necessary. In condition A, the researcher informed the participant's tat she was going to call out a list of fifteen words and that they were not to write anything at this time. When the researcher had called out the list of words, giving a three second interval between each word, she

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    Thus meaning the words that were able to be recalled were stored using a phonological code. The Brown and Peterson study proposed the idea that without rehearsal the duration of the short-term memory is shorter therefore causing forgetting. The results of the investigation can also support this, as it is evident in the 2nd condition.

  2. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    They were allowed to see the final results if they wished to do so, but ofcourse names of participants would not be mentioned-just the overall findings would be displayed. The standardised instructions helped to control the variables that may have biased the experiment.

  1. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    I then delivered the following instructions "This experiment is testing memory; you have the right to withdraw from this research if you feel any discomfort. When you receive your word list do not turn over until you are told to do so.

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    Therefore participants in the synonym condition will have higher level of forgetting due to greater interference. Retroactive interference also affected the recall of the participants in the antonym condition, though not as much as the synonym condition. Participants in the resting condition are least likely to be affected because no new material was given to them to learn.

  1. Investigate into the Primacy and Recency effect

    The recency effect can be measured using free recall, where participants are shown a list of words, and the later asked to recall them. The recency effect is shown by the fact that the last few words in the list are usually remembered better than the middle.

  2. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    As a consolation he received the Nobel prize for his contribution to science in 1949.Surgery is used only as a last resort where the patient has failed to respond to other forms of treatment and their disorder is very severe.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work