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Psychology AS memory notes

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Psychology Notes Multi store model of memory * Developed by Shiffrin and Atkinson (1968) * Attention: information that interests us which we then remember. * Encoding: a process of changing information to be remembered into a form which is suitable for memory to deal with. * Retrieval: when a memory is remembered and bought back to the STM from the LTM. * Capacity: the amount of information that can be held. * Rehearsal: to repeat the information over and over until it is transferred to the LTM. * Study: Conrad (1964). Used strings of letter, the sound of the letters muddled were B and V with the letter P. The sound of the letters matter in encoding in the STM. ...read more.


Known as retention interval. Found that recall was good when the retention interval was short, but more mistakes were made when the retention interval was longer. At 0 seconds retention interval recall was required immediately, performance was over 90%. This dropped to below 5% when the interval was 18 seconds. But the link between the experiment and real life is unclear. Remembering trigrams in a lab are not tasks which our memory usually carries out everyday. Can't generalise findings, as only university students were used. As university students are of above average intelligence their memory is better than any other group of people. * Encoding: STM- Mainly based on sounds (acoustic), LTM: Mainly based on meaning (semantic). * Capacity: STM- Limited (7 +/- 2 pieces or chunks of information), LTM: unlimited. ...read more.


Dropped to 70% (verbal) -->80%, after 48 years after leaving (visual). We can conclude that LT memories last a very long time. Working memory model * Study: Baddeley and Hitch (1974) * The Central Executive: controls activity of working memory --> has 'supervisory' function --> 'manager' what goes on. In memory the central executive will direct attention towards the most important information. * The Phonological Loop: Auditory store, rehearsing sound based information to prevent decay. * Phonological Store: referred to as the 'inner ear' --> deals with perception of sounds, in particular speech. * Articulatory Loop: limited to speech production --> 'inner voice'. It is a verbal rehearsal system, used to prevent decay of verbal material. Duration- up to about 2 seconds. * The Visuo Spatial Sketchpad (scratchpad): referred to as 'inner eye' -->considered visual and spatial version of articulatory loop. Deals with information by visually organising it. ...read more.

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