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Psychology Attachment Revision Guide

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Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Attachment ? Two people who have an emotional link, which ties them together Bond ? a set of feelings that ties one person to another Maccoby (1980) People have a bond by: * Seeking proximity * Distress on separation * Joy on reunion * General orientation or behaviour towards the other person Animal attachment ? first thing they see is their mother (imprint) Shaffer and Emerson (1964) * Studied 60 babies in Glasgow * Monthly visits for the first year then visit again at 18 months * Focussed on separation anxiety, stranger distress * Showed separation anxiety within 6-8 months (attachment formed ) * Fear of strangers followed a year after * After the first attachment they would form multiple attachments * 65% attachment was with the mother 3% with father * 27% was joint attachment with mother and father * Variety of methods of data collection * Ecological validity ? done in their own home * historical validity ? not relevant to today * inducing stress to children Classical conditioning - Learning through association Pavlov * Sounded a bell when feeding dogs * Began to salivate at the sound of the bell UCS ? unconditional stimulus UCR ? unconditional response CS ? conditioned stimulus CR ?conditioned response Food (UCS) ...read more.

Middle

? secure ? grew up to be more trusting * Interrater reliability ? interpret things differently * Lacks ecological validity ? lab but it represents playgroup * Ethical issues ? stress upon children * Low internal validity ? one relationship ?cannot base on whole attachments * Cannot generalise ? class, small sample * Not all fit within the 3 types ? main and Solomon ? type D (disorganised) * Population validity Cultural differences Individualistic ? encouraged to be independent Collectivist ? reliant on other Van Ijzendoorn & kroonenberg ? cultural differences * Meta-analysis ? lots of information ? 32 studies, 8 countries * Strange situation * 2000 babies (large sample) Type B ? most common in all cultures * Lowest in china * Greatest in Britain and Sweden (50%) * 70% mothers worked Type A ? most common in Germany and other western countries * Working mothers are rare ? encouraged independence * Rare in Israel and japan Type C ? most common in Israel * Children brought up in kibbuteim (closed communities ? don?t see strangers) * High in china and japan * Lowest in Scandinavian countries Evaluation * Large sample ? generalise to the whole population * No direct ethical issues ? didn?t do the research themselves * Half of the studies in the USA ? 27 in individualistic cultures only 5 in collectivist * ...read more.

Conclusion

* Romanian orphans in the institutions at 1 or 2 weeks * Care was poor * Adopted in the UK before 6 months compared to UK children * 58 babies adopted early (6m) * 59 adopted between (6-24m) * 48 adopted late (2-4y) * All showed malnourishment * Marked disinhibition – likely in children who spent longer in the institutions * Late adopted – most common marked disinhibition 26% * Rare in the UK children who were late adopted 3.8% * If at 6 they showed MD it wold persist in half the children till age 6 * Supports Bowlby –missed critical period * Lots of ways to measure MD * Difficult to obtain good quality data * Drop outs Marked disinhibition * Attention seeking towards adults * Inappropriate physical contact * Lack of checking back to parent Recovery Quality of care in institution – (Dontas) important for institutions to form the attachment Age of child when removed from privation – when removed young they develop better – age important for language development, less likely to develop language at 11\12yr (Romanian) Quality of care after – do best when placed in a supporting and caring environment – can form the attachment Follow on experiences in later life – Quinton/ Rutter – two groups of women ½ in car, care group more likely to have relationship breakdowns, criminal records and difficulties parenting their children. It’s not early experiences, its early adulthood which influence later development ...read more.

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