• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology Attachment Revision Guide

Extracts from this document...


Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Attachment ? Two people who have an emotional link, which ties them together Bond ? a set of feelings that ties one person to another Maccoby (1980) People have a bond by: * Seeking proximity * Distress on separation * Joy on reunion * General orientation or behaviour towards the other person Animal attachment ? first thing they see is their mother (imprint) Shaffer and Emerson (1964) * Studied 60 babies in Glasgow * Monthly visits for the first year then visit again at 18 months * Focussed on separation anxiety, stranger distress * Showed separation anxiety within 6-8 months (attachment formed ) * Fear of strangers followed a year after * After the first attachment they would form multiple attachments * 65% attachment was with the mother 3% with father * 27% was joint attachment with mother and father * Variety of methods of data collection * Ecological validity ? done in their own home * historical validity ? not relevant to today * inducing stress to children Classical conditioning - Learning through association Pavlov * Sounded a bell when feeding dogs * Began to salivate at the sound of the bell UCS ? unconditional stimulus UCR ? unconditional response CS ? conditioned stimulus CR ?conditioned response Food (UCS) ...read more.


? secure ? grew up to be more trusting * Interrater reliability ? interpret things differently * Lacks ecological validity ? lab but it represents playgroup * Ethical issues ? stress upon children * Low internal validity ? one relationship ?cannot base on whole attachments * Cannot generalise ? class, small sample * Not all fit within the 3 types ? main and Solomon ? type D (disorganised) * Population validity Cultural differences Individualistic ? encouraged to be independent Collectivist ? reliant on other Van Ijzendoorn & kroonenberg ? cultural differences * Meta-analysis ? lots of information ? 32 studies, 8 countries * Strange situation * 2000 babies (large sample) Type B ? most common in all cultures * Lowest in china * Greatest in Britain and Sweden (50%) * 70% mothers worked Type A ? most common in Germany and other western countries * Working mothers are rare ? encouraged independence * Rare in Israel and japan Type C ? most common in Israel * Children brought up in kibbuteim (closed communities ? don?t see strangers) * High in china and japan * Lowest in Scandinavian countries Evaluation * Large sample ? generalise to the whole population * No direct ethical issues ? didn?t do the research themselves * Half of the studies in the USA ? 27 in individualistic cultures only 5 in collectivist * ...read more.


* Romanian orphans in the institutions at 1 or 2 weeks * Care was poor * Adopted in the UK before 6 months compared to UK children * 58 babies adopted early (6m) * 59 adopted between (6-24m) * 48 adopted late (2-4y) * All showed malnourishment * Marked disinhibition – likely in children who spent longer in the institutions * Late adopted – most common marked disinhibition 26% * Rare in the UK children who were late adopted 3.8% * If at 6 they showed MD it wold persist in half the children till age 6 * Supports Bowlby –missed critical period * Lots of ways to measure MD * Difficult to obtain good quality data * Drop outs Marked disinhibition * Attention seeking towards adults * Inappropriate physical contact * Lack of checking back to parent Recovery Quality of care in institution – (Dontas) important for institutions to form the attachment Age of child when removed from privation – when removed young they develop better – age important for language development, less likely to develop language at 11\12yr (Romanian) Quality of care after – do best when placed in a supporting and caring environment – can form the attachment Follow on experiences in later life – Quinton/ Rutter – two groups of women ½ in car, care group more likely to have relationship breakdowns, criminal records and difficulties parenting their children. It’s not early experiences, its early adulthood which influence later development ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    NGRIs are not necessarily charged with murder because of a violent act. The possibility exists, for example, for one to murder someone with poison, which it could be argued is not violent. Dr. Shipman might be an interesting example if murder without violence.

  2. Attachment and Separation.

    Consistent with this, prospective longitudinal research has demonstrated that children with a history of secure attachment are independently rated as more resilient, self-reliant, socially oriented (Sroufe, 1983; Waters, Wippman, & Sroufe, 1979), empathic to distress (Kestenbaum, Farber, & Sroufe, 1989), with deeper relationships (Sroufe, 1983; Sroufe, Egeland, & Kreutzer, 1990).

  1. Task1 Counselling 1aPhysical signs and symptoms of stress

    Language is a primary form of interaction through which adults transmit to the child the rich body of knowledge that exists in the culture. As learning progresses, the child's own language comes to serve as their primary tool of intellectual adulteration.

  2. Infant's Attachments

    In high-risk samples, anxious attachments are more common especially in the anxious/disorganized category" (Colin) Hostile behavior is yet another consequence of a disorganized attachment. "One well-executed study found that infants with anxious/disorganized attachments were at risk for showing hostile/aggressive behavior problems at age five" (Colin).

  1. Foundations to Caring

    Radiators, lights, plugs, sockets and wires have to be covered to prevent accidents. Equipment, toys and washing areas must have easy access and be roomy. It is imperative that the layout is adapted for children with SEN do that their needs are met in order for them to learn just as anyone else.

  2. A replication and adaptation of Hazan and Schaver's "Love Quiz".

    Isabella et al (1989) supported these theories. However Kagan (1982) suggested that these differences were caused by the infant's innate temperament, that simply some infants are good at forming attachments and others aren't. Belsky and Campell et al (1996) suggest that change; chronic stress or illness occurring in the Primary Care giver may shift the child's attachment type from secure to insecure.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work