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Psychology Essay The Biological Model The biological model views abnormally behaviour as caused by biological factors

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Psychology Essay The Biological Model The biological model views abnormally behaviour as caused by biological factors. The biological factors associated with mental illness usually affect the brain in one way or another. A specific disorder that is caused by brain damage or malfunction is Alzheimer's disease . When searching for causes of mental illness, people who consult the biological model look to the following causes of illness: The first one being biochemical factors; An excess or deficiency in the chemical elements in the body, especially in the brain, has been shown to be a possible cause of some mental disorders. There are many neurotransmitters in the brain and a chemical imbalance in a few of the known ones is believed to be associated with abnormal behaviour The second factor is genetics; Some conditions such as depression, schizophrenia and alcoholism are believed to be caused in party by genetic factors. The diathesis-stress theory states that it not a particular abnormality that is inherited but a predisposition to develop the illness. Certain stressors in the environment may activate the predisposition, resulting in a disorder. This theory demonstrates that although the main emphasis of the medical model is on physical factors, it does not necessarily rule out the contribution of other non-biological variables. Thirdly infections are a factor; Many physical illnesses are caused by the invasion of the body by viruses and bacteria. ...read more.


The model cannot sufficiently account for some of the more complex forms of abnormal behaviour for which no organic cause can be found. There have however been some positives that have come out of the biological model. This model has led to the recognition that some conditions are mainly biological in origin even when the symptoms they present are mainly psychological. The diathesis-stress model recognises the interaction of biological and environmental factors and offers an explanation that has been successfully applied to many conditions Biological treatments often afford help and relief after other methods have failed. The psychodynamic model The psychodynamic approach consists of a group of explanations based on the dynamics of the mind. According to Freud, the mind consists of three dynamic and interactive processes: the id, the ego and the superego. The first being The id which consists of two instinctual forces: Eros - is the life force and is associated with pleasure and the need for immediate gratification of primitive and biological needs. The other major instinctive force within the id is Thanatos, the death force. The second part of the brain is the ego which comes into existence during the second year and it recognises the need to take account of the demands of the real world, initially the demands of the parents, meaning inevitable conflict between the id and the ego. ...read more.


Except for his family, he spent no time with infants or children, yet his theory hinges on the course of their development. The model tends to over-emphasise the importance of sexuality and under-estimate the role of social relationships in influencing people, including those diagnosed as abnormal. Many critics argue that it also over-emphasises the importance of early life in causing problems, since the problems can arise as the result of adult experiences. There is also little satisfactory evidence that Freud's patients were cured by the use of psychoanalysis . There is no objective way of judging whether the insight provided by the therapy truly reflects unconscious conflicts or whether the patient simply succumbs to the persuasive powers of the analyst. Psychoanalysis has been accused of neglecting the client's immediate and pressing problems while searching for unconscious conflicts in the remote past. There are, however some positive points about the psychodynamic model such as Freud argued for a respectful and humane attitude towards people who were considered to be mentally ill. Also a popular view of abnormality before Freud was that people with a mental disorder were possessed by demons and they were cruelly treated in a supposed attempt to remove these demons. Freud did a good deal at dispelling this idea and to advance the belief that people were not responsible for their condition. Finally Freud helped us to appreciate that psychological conflict in a universal experience and only leads to abnormal functioning when conflict becomes excessive. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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