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Psychology First Impression

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Abstract The aim of the research was to carry out a similar study of Luchins(1957) which found that the first piece of information received about an individual often bears more weight ( stronger ) than information gained later so as to see whether first impression is relevant in the 21st century. The alternative hypothesis is that there will be a significant difference in the number of positive and negative ranting between the positive primacy group and the negative primacy group. This study was a field experiment with an independent groups design The independent variable was whether positive primacy story or negative primacy story given to the participant and the dependant variable was the number of positive or negative rating given to the character (Bob).On 21st June 2008 at about 12:30 pm, we went to the Chester - le-street front street, an opportunity sample of 30 participants (15 participants in each groups) 16-59 years old were used. There were two groups of participants reading either positive primacy story or negative primacy story. For positive primacy story, the character (Bob) was described as extrovert first, then introvert and for negative primacy story, Bob was introvert first, then extrovert. Afterwards they were given a questionnaire to rate Bob in terms of certain personality traits. A chi square test was used to analysis the results. The Observed value of Chi squared was T = 20 and the Critical value was 3.84 . As the observed value is higher than the critical value, the alternative hypothesis can be accepted at p less than or equal to 0.05.Therefore, it seems from the earlier research that the order in which the information is received has an impact on impression formation. Therefore, the aim of this research is to see whether the first impression is relevant in the 21st century (the first information received has a greater impact on impression formation than the second information). ...read more.

Middle

primacy story whereas another group was using the negative primacy story .We used standardised recruitment statement to ask the participants if they wished to participate in our study. If they agreed to take part, then we used standardised instructions to describe what they would do in the study. However if they rejected, we just said 'Thank you' and let then go. They read the story only once then it was taken off. They were given a questionnaires to rate Bob in terms of certain personality traits. We then debriefed the participants (using standardised debriefing statement) and gave them the right to withdraw . Discussion The aim of the experiment is to see how first impression is applied in the 21st century .The finding of this investigation shown a significant difference in the number of positive and negative rating between the positive primacy group and the negative primacy group .For positive primacy story, all of the 15 participants gave an overall positive response to what they would say Bob was .For the negative primacy story, 12 participants gave Bob an overall negative impression ,whereas 3 gave answers showing that they thought Bob was an overall positive person . The Chi Square test was significant when less than or equal to 0.05 level and the results was supported by the data collected, the observed value (20) is greater than the critical value (3.84). Thus, the alternative hypothesis will be retained. There has been much research into first impression .Since early research by Luchins [1957], he found that when questioned about a character 's behaviour after hearing a story , participants who hear the story being the positive one first will rate the person more positively than those who hear story describing the negative one first. Therefore, his study suggested that people tend to regard the first information as revealing the real person and seen as a typical of the person and we tend to give greater weight to the information we get first. ...read more.

Conclusion

Luchins, A. S. (1957) .Cited in Atkinson , R.C., and Atkinson, R.C ,Smith ,E.E. ,Bem ,D .J. and Hilgowd ,E.R. (1990) .Introduction to Psychology.(tenth edition ).London :Harcaurt Brace Jovanovich . Websites AQA is an independent company, limited by guarantee, and a charity. http://www.aqa.org.uk/Accessed on 25th June, 2008 http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~psych200/unit8/81.htm Accessed on 25th June, 2008 Aims and hypothesis It seems from the earlier research that the order in which the information is received has an impact on impression formation. Therefore, the aim of this research is to see whether the first impression is relevant in the 21st century (the first information received has a greater impact on impression formation than the second information).The hypothesis is that there will be a significant difference in the number of positive and negative rating between the positive primacy group and the negative primacy group. The null hypothesis is that there will be no significant difference the number of positive and negative rating between the positive primacy group and the negative primacy group .The study has a two tailed hypothesis with level of significant at p = 0.05. The independent variable was whether positive primacy story or negative primacy story was given to the participant and the dependant variable was number of positive or negative rating given to the character (Bob). Title First impressions Results The level in this experiment is of a nominal scale indicating a non- parametric test .Since the design was an independent groups design .Chi square was judged to be the appropriate for analysing the data .The observed value was 20,the critical value was 3.84, the degree of freedom = 1,significance is p less than or equal to 0.05 and it was a two tailed hypothesis .Since the observed value of my results is more than the critical value ,the null hypothesis must be rejected and the alternative hypothesis must be accepted. Appendices Appendix 1 = Story 1 & 2 Appendix 2 = Questionnaire Appendix 3 = Standardised recruitment statement & standardised Instructions Appendix 4 = Standardised debriefing Appendix 5 = Calculations and result tables Appendix 6 = Bar charts of results ...read more.

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